Editor's note: In 2010, Columnist Philip Potempa competed in the Seattle Sutton Slim Down Challenge.
Michael and Linda Adams believe husband and wife competition can be a healthy motivation for positive change.
The Crown Point newlyweds are among the10 contestants who were selected to shed pounds at the start of 2014 during a three-month contest from Seattle Sutton's Healthy Eating.
This is the fifth year the Chicagoland claim-to-fame healthy prepared and packaged meal franchise has sponsored a Slim Down Contest to help participants lose weight, learn about portion-control and healthy menu planning while also vying for prizes.
While the first four contests were focused on Chicago and the suburbs, this year's contest targeted 10 lucky residents in Northwest Indiana's Lake and Porter counties to lose weight and improve their health. The individual who loses the most weight will be named the grand prize winner and will be awarded a trip for two to Riviera Maya, Mexico, valued at $2,500.
"This is something we want to do not only for ourselves, but for each other," said Linda, 46, who said her family's health history includes heart disease, diabetes and high blood pressure.
Husband Michael, 52, will be facing added daily temptation because of his popular and appetizing business.
"I run a hot dog stand in Crown Point," Michael said.
"So will power will be important for me during the next three months of the contest."
Last October, interested participants looking to make a lifestyle change were invited to submit their stories and a photo of themselves at seattlesutton.com to be considered for the competition, which launched Jan. 13 at the Seattle Sutton Healthy Eating location at 620 W 81st Ave. and concludes April 28.
Each of the 10 chosen contestants are receiving 21 provided meals per week from Seattle Sutton's famed kitchens for a total of 315 meals throughout the 15-week challenge. The meals consist of freshly prepared breakfasts, lunches and dinner items, amounting to an allowance of 1,200 calories per day. Contestants are told to add two glasses of fat-free (skim) milk each day and a minimum of eight glasses of water per day.
The contestant who loses the most weight based on percentage of body weight wins the three-night trip for two to RIU Palace Riviera Maya, Mexico from Apple Vacations. The second place prize is a $1,000 cash prize from SSHE, and the third place prize is couples' spa treatments from Serendipity Province Spa, valued at $540.
When Seattle Sutton launched her first Slim Down Challenge in 2010, she had a pool of more than 3,000 potential contenders who applied for the inaugural contest.
There are Seattle Sutton centers throughout Northwest Indiana, from Chesterton and Valparaiso to Highland, Merrillville and St. John, in addition to others.
To date, Seattle Sutton has helped the 39 people from the previous four contests shed 1,722 pounds. In 2010, the initial 10 contestants lost a total of 372 pounds in 14 weeks. In 2012, nine LaSalle County, Ill. residents lost a total of 510 pounds in 15 weeks. And, in the summer of 2012, 10 DuPage County, Ill. contestants lost 355 pounds in 15 weeks. Last year, 10 Peoria-Tri County residents lost a combined weight of 485 pounds in 15 weeks.
"I am so happy to help these 10 finalists begin a new, healthier lifestyle through providing them with our freshly prepared, portion and calorie-controlled meals,” said Seattle Sutton, RN, BSN, and founder of Seattle Sutton's Healthy Eating.
"Making a positive lifestyle choice, such as changing one's eating habits is an important step in achieving improved overall health. Good health is a person's greatest asset in life, without it, nothing else matters."
The family owned company based in Ottawa, Ill., is headed by the 82-year old registered nurse Sutton, who founded the company in 1985 with her late physician husband, in hopes of helping to improve people's eating habits and overall health by providing the healthiest meals possible prepared and provided clients coast-to-coast with more than 80 million meals to date.
Contestants are also having blood lab work completed, once at the beginning of the contest and once at the end, to measure cholesterol, triglycerides and fasting blood sugar, as well have their blood pressure taken. Lab services are free as part of the contest, provided by IN THE FIELD Health Services. Contestants will be weighed each week at their Lake and Porter Counties distributor locations when they pick up their SSHE meals.
SPRINGFIELD | Illinois shoppers could find themselves paying extra for soft drinks under a proposed statewide soda tax.
The new plan would add an extra penny on every ounce of sugary drinks sold in sealed containers, along with the syrups and powders used to flavor them.
The tax is part of a broader plan to promote healthy living in Illinois, according to state Sen. Mattie Hunter, D-Chicago, who sponsored the legislation. Revenue from the tax would go toward a range of health services and education initiatives.
“Numerous studies have linked excessive consumption of sugary soft drinks to obesity,” Hunter said in an email. “We as a state need to do a better job of educating the public and children in particular about this issue and the health risks.”
The proposal has drawn criticism from the Illinois Coalition Against Beverage Taxes – an alliance of manufacturers, retailers and union workers who say the tax would harm the economy and kill jobs in Illinois.
“You reduce consumption, and you reduce employment,” said Brian Rainville, a spokesman for Teamsters Joint Council 25 in Chicago and northwest Indiana. “If there’s less being made and distributed, there’s fewer people doing those jobs."
In 2011, a report by the Cook County Department of Public Health recommended that legislators impose a tax of two cents per ounce on all sugar-sweetened beverages.
Though similar measures have won approval in other states, Illinois lawmakers have been unable to get the tax off the ground.
Others say the tax would impose a burden on families trying to purchase groceries.
“This tax adds $2.88 to a (24-pack) case of soda,” said Mark Denzler, vice president of the Illinois Manufacturers Association. “It’s nearly a 50 percent increase in the cost of it.”
But Hunter said the plan would save the state money by reducing health care costs.
“Medical expenses associated with obesity cost taxpayers more than $100 million annually,” she said.
We all know the benefits of a balanced diet, but for those at risk of heart disease, further steps may need to be taken. Doctors recommend that patients consume plenty of fruits and vegetables and foods containing fiber, while eliminating fats and unnecessary salt.
Below are several useful substitutions to keep the foods you love with a heart-healthy focus.
Quinoa vs. Rice
Instead of making a bowl of fried rice, try a dish made with nutritious and filling quinoa, a tasty whole grain that is also rich in protein.
Yogurt vs. Sour Cream
Plain greek yogurt is an excellent substitute for its fattier cousin, sour cream, and in many recipes is indistinguishable. Plus, yogurt also includes healthy cultures essential to the digestive system. Hint: In a pinch, it can even be a substitute for heavy cream.
Tofu vs. Ground Beef
I know, most people hear “tofu” and run screaming, or at least pick around these often-gelatinous cubes. But when prepared correctly, tofu can take on any flavors you need, as well as mimicking many different textures, such as American cheese slices or even ground chicken. Check out Chipotle’s new Sofritas to see exactly what I mean.
Homemade vs. Processed
Though reducing added salts is a good step to take, many processed and prepackaged foods contain large amounts of sodium. Canned soups, for example, may seem healthy, but pack a punch in your daily sodium ration. Instead of buying prepackaged meals, prepare the meals at home. That way you can control exactly what goes into everything you eat.
Kale Chips vs. Potato Chips
The internet is bursting with recipes for healthy, oven-baked kale chips, which can be seasoned with virtually any flavor. Kale is one of nature’s superfoods, so it’s easy to eat healthy while still enjoying a tasty snack.
Regular vs. Cauliflower Pizza Crust
Though it sounds a little strange, many writers have praised the innovation of a cauliflower pizza crust, made with pulverized cauliflower rather than white flour. With a little low-sodium tomato sauce and some reduced fat cheese, there’s no reason you can’t enjoy a thin crust pizza al fresco.
Egg white omelet vs. scrambled eggs
Nowadays, you can buy egg whites already separated in cartons for convenience, but if you want to separate the yolk from the egg white, here’s a handy tip; using an empty water bottle, squeeze the bottle and hold the mouth against the egg yolk. Release your grip on the bottle slowly to suck the yolk right out of the egg.
Mahi Mahi vs. Steak
Even for those who don’t love the taste of fish, Mahi Mahi is a good option that has hardly any “seafood” taste, but plenty of buttery, flakey texture. Serve spiced and grilled mahi mahi as your main meat course instead of a t-bone at your next dinner party.
Spread vs. Pour
Instead of pouring large amounts of olive oil into your skillet, or throwing in a large tab of butter, use a nonstick pan such as a Green Pan and spread a small amount of oil in the pan with a paper towel. In most cases, this is enough to keep your food cooking without burning it to the pan.
Whole Grain Pasta vs. Regular
Whole grain pasta contains heart-healthy fibers and nutrients that regular pasta lacks.
1 box whole grain rotini
½ lb ground turkey
1 jar low-sodium pasta sauce
¼ c. greek yogurt
½ c. reduced fat mozzarella
In a large pot, cook the pasta, drain and set aside.
While the pasta is cooking, brown the turkey in a nonstick skillet. When the turkey is cooked through, add the garlic powder and oregano, then the cooked pasta, the pasta sauce, greek yogurt and cheese. Mix and reheat until ready to serve.
An untidy bedroom won’t make you ill but a dirty kitchen potentially can.
“I heard a story in culinary school, during my safety and sanitation class, about a young girl who died from eating watermelon that was cut on the same cutting board as raw meat that was tainted with E.Coli. That really stuck with me because carelessness in the kitchen can have very serious consequences,” says Katie Sannito, owner of The Gourmet Goddess in Munster.
There’s a lot going on in a kitchen: temperature and moisture fluctuations, potentially pathogenic material on site, water, high heat, electricity, sharp objects - all in close proximity to one another. The best way to control this environment, which can breed bacteria or promote cross contamination, is by keeping it clean and organized.
Scott Gilliam, Director of Food Protection for Indiana State Department of Health, says it’s important to routinely clean to avoid the development of biofilm, a slimy film of bacteria that adheres to a surface.
“Biofilm build up shouldn't be happening - you want to avoid that. It can happen over time usually in the nooks and crannies that are hard to clean,” says Gilliam.
Bruce Applegate, Associate Professor in the Department of Food Science at Purdue, says to prevent biofilm from developing surfaces must be mechanically scrubbed.
“When you clean something, make sure you physically scrub it. Once biofilms have a source, they become resistant to cleaners. Then they become a source,” says Applegate. “As biofilms form they undergo changes and it allows them to survive better.”
Norm Faiola, a professor of hospitality and tourism management at Purdue University Calumet, agrees scrubbing the kitchen regularly with hot soapy water is important. But it’s critical after handling raw meat as this can cause foodborne illness.
“Let’s use Thanksgiving as an example. You take the giblet bag out, you’ve got Tom in the sink and you run water over him to rinse out all of the stuff inside. But now you have bacteria on your hands. You touch the faucet, grab a towel – get Tom in the pan and into the oven. If that area is not cleaned and sanitized properly and you go to make the salad next, that’s a classic case of cross contamination,” says Faiola.
Faiola says so much contamination happens in the process of rinsing raw meat, that it should be avoided all together. After all, water won’t kill bacteria - heat will. This is why cooking meat to its proper temperature is necessary.
What is used to scrub a mess can determine the severity of a bacteria load. For example using a sponge or dish cloth that has not been properly cleaned and dried can do more harm than good.
“After you prepare any raw animal food in your kitchen you need to clean it up immediately, preferably using disposable towels rather than a cloth towel or sponge. They will hold contaminates and you can't really get them clean,” says Gilliam.
Faiola and Sannito agree that if you choose to use dish cloths make sure they are rotated on a regular basis – especially when handling raw meat.
Most bacteria and viruses can’t survive on dry surfaces so avoid leaving wet rags or sponges lying around.
“My biggest pet peeve in the world is a soaking wet sponge left in the sink. You're just asking for trouble and to get sick,” says Sannito.
Applegate says although there isn’t a way to be certain a sponge is thoroughly cleaned, heating a moist sponge in the microwave can help reduce bacteria; however, the microwave heats unevenly. Using a heating method such as boiling is better as the temperature is more consistent.
“Just because a surface or dish is free from visible soil, that doesn’t mean it’s sanitary. It can still have a bacterial load on it. By following proper procedures: wash, rinse and sanitize, we can reduce the bacteria load to safe level,” says Faiola.
Not many of us often ask what Fred Flintstone would eat. But for those considering the Paleo diet, the question is, if it was good enough for cavemen to eat, is it good enough for us?
“It’s the diet of our ancestors,” says Elana Amsterdam, author of Paleo Cooking from Elana's Pantry: Gluten-Free, Grain-Free, Dairy-Free Recipes (Ten Speed Press 2013; $17.99), who has been following the diet for 12 years. “Humans were hunter-gatherers during the Paleolithic era, some10, 000 to 2.5 million years ago.”
Following a Paleo-based diet doesn’t mean serving brontosaurus steaks or scrambled pterodactyl eggs. But it is radical compared to what’s on our plates today.
“The Paleo Diet mimics the diets of people who lived during the Paleolithic era,” says Lori Granich, Registered Dietitian at the Midwest Bariatric Institute at Franciscan St. Margaret Health in Dyer. “The diet focuses on natural foods that have been around since the beginning of time.”
In those times, our ancestors bereft of convenience stores and fast food joints selling Twinkies, soft drinks and Big Macs had to settle for unprocessed foods, low in fat and sodium, higher in potassium and fiber. Lean proteins came from grass-fed meats, fish and eggs.
“It wasn’t until about 10,000 years ago, with the advent of the agricultural revolution, that grains were introduced into our diet,” says Amsterdam. “For 99% of our existence we lived on a grain free diet. This means grains are a new food and I think certain people, such as me, can’t adapt to digesting grains.”
Indeed, Amsterdam who also authored Gluten-Free Cupcakes: 50 Irresistible Recipes Made with Almond and Coconut Flour, was diagnosed as having Celiac disease in 1998 and has been grain free since 2001.
“The Paleo diet some of the things that I teach in my diabetes classes,” says Terri Sakelaris, M.S., a registered dietitian and Certified Diabetes Educator at the Community Hospital Diabetes Center in Munster. “My classes emphasize the Mediterranean diet—fresh food, salads, filling up on fruits and vegetables, not too big into bread and baked goods and avoiding processed foods. The Paleo diet is similar though it’s also more restrictive.”
Sakelaris points out that several studies including one entitled Mediterranean Diet, Lifestyle Factors, and 10-Year Mortality in Elderly European Men and Women which ran in the Journal of the American Medical Association indicates that even in old age a Mediterranean-style diet along with a bit of wine, some physical activity and no smoking helps people live longer compared to people who did not follow this diet along with the other factors.
While we can never totally recreate the foods of our forebears, for those following the Paleo diet, the main source of carbohydrates come from fruits and vegetables, there’s an emphasis on the type of healthy fats found in nuts, and oils such as olive and flaxseed. Not recommended are dairy, refined sugars, processed foods, cereals and grains, potatoes and refined vegetable oils.
“The supporters of the diet state that our food industry has developed faster than our bodies could adapt,” says Granich. “This is the reason for the rise in chronic diseases. The diet focuses on ‘real’ food which is something I believe people should focus on. It is rich in fiber, vitamins and minerals, and antioxidants; the components of our diets that fight off disease."
But there are, of course caveats.
“The Paleo diet is short on carbohydrates,” says Leelarani Chigurupati, RD, CSO, a registered dietitian at Methodist Hospitals who is designated as a board certified specialist in Oncology Nutrition working directly with individuals at risk for, or diagnosed with, any type of malignancy or pre-malignant conditions, one of only 13 in the state. One-third of the diet is protein which exceeds the recommendations of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines. “It was a surprise for me to read about the exclusion of whole grains and dairy.”
According to Kim Kramer, RDN, LDN, Ingalls Wellness Dietitian, Kids Eat Right Crew Illinois Representative and the Illinois Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Media Spokesperson, the Paleo diet appears to be the newest in a long run of trendy diets. But she worries that by chopping off the bottom of the food pyramid, we’re eliminating needed vitamins.
“If people don’t consumer dairy, then where will they get their Vitamin D?” she asks. “More and more people are realizing that deficiencies in Vitamin D are very common particularly in the Midwest.”
Chigurupati also wonders if many people can sustain Paleo 24/7.
“It doesn’t seem practical for our society and it’s costly to eat only wild caught fish, grass-fed meats and organic vegetables,” she says. “The diet is set up that you can have three non-Paleo meals out of every 21 meals. And it talks about exercise and that is good.”
Sakelaris notes that when people eliminate high-calorie processed foods they feel better and have more energy.
“But it’s also important to make sure you’re getting the right nutrition which is what makes the Mediterranean diet so effective,” she says.
According to Granich the Paleo diet has good basic principles—lean proteins, plenty of fruits and vegetables, healthy fats—that can be altered to meet the needs of people today.
“But the Paleo diet does have its set of weaknesses,” says Granich. “First of all, it is very strict and would be hard for most people to stick to for a lifetime. Critics argue that the life expectancy in that era was dramatically different than today which make some question why we would try to mock that time period. The nutrition deficiency problems that used to plague our world have been addressed through fortification in foods, especially grains and dairy and dietary supplements.”
Amsterdam has a suggestion to help with these concerns.
“Many people do an 80/20 Paleo,” she says. “But it just makes sense to eat close to the earth. It’s real food.”
Stomach pain can be caused by a myriad of diseases, from a basic stomach flu or food poisoning to much more complicated conditions including inflammatory bowel disease, cancer of the gastrointestinal tract or irritable bowel syndrome.
“There are hundreds of different causes of stomach pain because there are so many different organs, including the liver and pancreas, that could be giving you pain, and each organ has many diseases,” says Dr. Gene Chang, who is on staff at Community Hospital in Munster. “Most are common infections related to the flu or food poisoning. (But) sometimes it is more severe, like peptic ulcer disease or an inflammatory bowel disease.”
Some stomach pains can be treated at home with rest or over-the-counter medication. But doctors say you should seek medical treatment if the pain becomes severe, is accompanied by a fever, or the inability to tolerate liquids or solids by mouth. Other symptoms that require immediate medical attention including difficulty swallowing, nausea with vomiting and vomiting blood.
“For the short term, stay hydrated and drink plenty of fluids,” Dr. Chang says. “But if it persists and you have a high fever, seek medical attention immediately.”
Dr. Rahul Julka, one of three doctors who operates out of the Digestive Disease Centers, which have offices around Lake and Porter Counties, says stomach pain is a common ailment because the symptoms for benign illnesses and severe illnesses overlap.
“Any symptoms which are severe or persistent should be evaluated by a gastroenterologist to ensure that there is no serious pathology underlying the symptoms which my require treatment,” Dr. Julka says. “With routine care by a gastroenterologist, even colon cancer can be largely preventable.”
Once patients come in for medical attention, a doctor can determine, through testing, what the patient’s condition might be and how to treat it.
Celiac disease, which is a sensitivity to gluten, can be diagnosed with a blood test and other testing and managed through diet.
Crohn’s disease, for example, can be diagnosed by testing tissue and managed through medication, surgery or nutritional supplementation.
Crohn’s disease is one of two main diseases called inflammatory bowel diseases, Dr. Julka says.
The disease is a chronic immune condition where the body’s immune system attacks the gastrointestinal tract, and is most commonly found in the ileum, which is the last part of the small intestine.
Crohn’s Disease usually is diagnosed in people in their teens into their 30s, but can also be diagnosed later in life.
“Roughly 1 million people in the United States suffer from Crohn’s,” Dr. Julka says. “The cause of Crohn’s has not been 100-percent figured out yet, but there does seem to be a correlation between genetic predisposition and environment.”
For some diseases, including gastro esophageal reflux disease, also known as acid reflux, diet can play a role in managing the disease.
“Symptoms like heartburn can be affected by caffeine, alcohol, acidic foods, spicy foods and greasy or fatty foods,” Dr. Julka says. “Other diseases like gall bladder, bile duct disease and pancreatitis can be affected by greasy or fatty foods.”
Conditions like lactose intolerance are caused by the body’s inability to break down lactose, which is the main sugar in dairy products.
Although not every disease of the stomach area can be managed through diet, both doctors agree that maintaining a healthy lifestyle can go a long way.
“Minimize alcohol, don’t smoke, and try to lead a healthy lifestyle,” Dr. Chang says. “And if you have any questions, talk with your primary care physicians.”
Like a charming guest welcomed to stay indefinitely, the spice rack enhances dishes both simple and complex while lending a warm, inviting aroma to the kitchen. Featuring the best botanicals from around the globe, its miniature bottles offer the occasional folk medicine (placing a clove next to a sore tooth offers a surefire way to lessen the pain) and enliven even the blandest concoction served up for dinner. Who could have guessed that these simple seasonings would wield the power to shape empires that fought for control of their commerce, even leading Columbus to bump into an unknown (to Europeans) hemisphere in search of better trade routes? Small in size, even the spicy cubeb berry played a role in this important chapter in the Age of Discovery.
What does it do?
Cubeb stimulates and aids the urinary tract as well as the prostate gland. It has retained a long-standing reputation as a fertility aid. As late as World War II cigarettes containing cubeb were smoked as a remedy for asthma and hay fever. Cubeb has been used to restore appetite, treat ailments of the throat and address oral and dental conditions. In bygone times cubeb was employed as an aphrodisiac and even found its way into concoctions used to exorcise demons. A compound found in cubeb oil is currently used as a cooling and refreshing agent in chewing gum, toothpaste and various confectionary items.
About the herb
Its name derived from the Arabic kababa, this native of Southeast Asia arrived in Europe by way of India via Arab spice traders. Bearing a taste suggesting a cross between allspice and pepper, cubeb has been employed in a variety of ways in a variety of ancient lands through which it passed. Tibetans assigned it as an herb useful for the health of the spleen. The Chinese use cubeb berries almost exclusively for medical applications. The cubeb berry has even entered popular culture. In the musical, "The Music Man," the main character tries to warn parents that their sons are spending too much time in pool halls smoking cubeb cigarettes!
To retain its fast-evaporating oils, cubeb should be freshly ground before joining its dinner companions on your platter. Its peppery taste is made all the more exotic with its hint of allspice and bitters. Cubeb also brings a twist of the traditional appetite stimulant to the table.
When it comes to vitamins, can there be too much of a good thing?
Depends upon our needs and what vitamins we’re taking, says Tim Petritis, a member of the marketing and education team at Baums Natural Foods with locations in Munster, Merrillville and St. John.
“We have two certified nutritionists at the store that can answer questions about vitamins,” he says. “Much of what we sell are formulas made by companies who have doctors and research scientists on staff who specialize exclusively in nutrition.”
Petritis emphasizes knowing what you’re taking because more isn’t always necessarily better.
“People will come in and say I’m taking this and this vitamin supplement and I’ll ask them why they’re taking them and they don’t really know,” says Kim Kramer, Kim Kramer, RDN, LDN, Ingalls Wellness Dietitian, Kids Eat Right Crew Illinois Representative and the Illinois Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Media Spokesperson.
“Americans tend to believe that more is better and that is definitely not the mentality to have when taking vitamins,” says Lori Granich, RD, a clinical dietitian at the Midwest Bariatric Institute in Dyer. “Some vitamins are merely excreted when the dosage is more than the body can store, but others can build up and cause toxicity.”
Large doses of supplements can also affect absorption or the body’s use of other nutrients says Cathie Claysen MS, RD, LD, School of Nursing, College of Health and Human Services at Indiana University Northwest.
“They should be thought of as supplemental and not substitutes for a healthy diet,” she says.
“When vitamins provide very high dosages, there can be serious side effects,” says Granich. “Too much Vitamin A, for example, can cause liver problems and osteoporosis. Depending on the vitamin, high dosages can cause anything from fatigue to kidney problems."
According to Claysen, large doses of calcium or magnesium from supplements can decrease iron absorption and zinc supplements can decrease calcium absorption.
“Interference with vitamin absorption from foods has also been documented,” she says.
“If people are eating healthy natural food, they should be getting the nutrients that they need,” says Kramer. “That would include whole grains which help move the food through the body to help prevent colorectal cancer as well as two and a half cups of vegetables and two cups of fruit a day. It’s also important to limit the consumption of processed meats, alcoholic beverages and sugar and to maintain a healthy weight for cancer protection.”
Kramer recommends eating three meals a day and not go four to five hours without eating anything.
“We absorb nutrients best from a variety of nutrient dense foods like fruits, vegetables, legumes, low fat dairy and whole grains,” says Claysen.
But eating well isn’t always possible with our hectic lifestyles, says Petritis.
“Unfortunately even if we ate a perfect diet, the soil is depleted and to extend the shelf life of foods, we would come up short,” he says.
“Dietary supplements can include vitamins, minerals, and even enzymes and are intended to help people reach their dietary needs,” says Granich. “The supplement industry has really skyrocketed...The biggest thing to remember is that supplements are not regulated in the same way our food is by the Food and Drug Administration."
There are supplements and there are supplements, says Petritis.
“People need to read the labels and see if there artificial colors and fillers like talc which have been known to cause health problems,” he says. “Often people may think they are getting a bargain on drugstore vitamins but what they are getting are fillers, binders, low grade fish oils and synthetic nutrients. Many products are designed to sell, not work.”