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How well do you know Indiana?

How well do you know Indiana?

Editor’s note: The Indiana Historical Society provided a year’s worth of questions and answers about Indiana and its history.

1. What was the last county formed in Indiana, and when?

Organized in 1859, Newton County is the youngest county in the state. It is also the second county to be named Newton in this area of the state; the first appeared in 1834, but because of a small population, was absorbed into Jasper County by 1839.

2. Why does Indianapolis have a circle at its center?

The very first plan of Indianapolis, created in 1821, featured a circle in the center. Designed by Alexander Ralston, the plan for Indianapolis was strongly influenced by Washington, D.C., which Ralston helped survey and map. He originally planned the governor's house for the center of the circle.

3. What was the first electrically lighted city in Indiana?

Wabash made history in on March 31, 1880, when an Ohio investor tested his new electric arc lights on the courthouse dome. Special trains carried 10,000 visitors and dozens of reporters to see the wonder. Wabash claimed to be the first electrically lit city in the world.

4. Which Hoosier city is known for serving as a winter home for circuses?

In 1891, Benjamin Wallace established winter quarters for the Hagenbeck-Wallace Circus on his farm near Peru. There, he had plenty of land to house animals and to grow food for them. In 1907, he bought out Carl Hagenbeck, and his circus became one of the largest in the country.

5. Who fought in the Battle of Tippecanoe?

By 1811, Native American hostility towards the government intensified due to land that had been surrendered. Tenskwatawa, known as the Shawnee Prophet, and his brother Tecumseh began uniting tribes for Indian resistance. In November 1811, they attacked William Henry Harrison's men at Prophetstown. Harrison claimed victory, but suffered a huge loss, with one-fifth of his men dead or wounded.

6. Who was Indiana’s governor during the Civil War?

At age 37, Oliver P. Morton became the first native-born Hoosier to serve as governor. Morton steered the state through the critical Civil War period. Morton's staunch support of President Abraham Lincoln's administration, coupled with the belief that the Union should be preserved by any means necessary, made Indiana a reliable source of manpower throughout the war.

7. What famous president was born in Kentucky but grew up in Indiana?

Indiana became a state on Dec. 11, 1816, around the time the family of Abraham Lincoln established their new home in Spencer County. As a child in Pigeon Creek, Lincoln often helped with such heavy work as plowing fields, splitting logs into rails and building fences. In 1820, at age 11, Lincoln attended his first school in Spencer County where he was taught manners, as well as reading, writing and arithmetic.

8. What does “LaPorte” mean?

LaPorte is French for "the door." French explorers discovered a natural opening in the densely forested area that provided a gateway to other regions. The county was organized in 1832, and the town of LaPorte became the county seat the same year.

9. When was Indiana’s first state park created?

As part of the state's centennial, McCormick's Creek State Park became Indiana's first state park on July 4, 1916. Named for the McCormick family, who settled the land in 1816, the park features many waterfalls and a canyon that is a mile long and 100 feet deep.

10. Which famous Hoosier author once lived in the Lockerbie Square area of Indianapolis?

A lifelong bachelor, James Whitcomb Riley found refuge from life as a famous writer as a paying guest in a Lockerbie Street home in Indianapolis. He resided there from 1893 until his death. After his death, Riley's friend William Fortune bought the home and preserved it until the formation of the Riley Association.

11. Which Hoosier author lived near the Limberlost swamp?

Hoosier author Gene Stratton-Porter was an unusual woman for her time. She loved spending time outdoors and wrote about it in her books. Stratton-Porter wanted to live near her beloved Limberlost Swamp, where she studied, wrote about and photographed wildlife, so she designed a 14-room Queen Anne-style log cabin for her family.

12. Who was Fort Wayne named for?

Old Fort Wayne was built in 1794 after General Anthony Wayne defeated Little Turtle, a chief of the Miami Tribe. It replaced several other frontier outposts established by the French at the site where three rivers meet.

13. When was Lake County created?

Large counties were sometimes divided up into smaller counties as more settlers moved to the area. Lake County was formed in 1836 from the western portion of Porter County and was organized in 1837.

14. Where was the Hoosier cabinet made?

The Hoosier Cabinet was produced by the Hoosier Manufacturing Co. in New Castle. Baker's cabinets became popular in the late 19th century. The freestanding cabinet included a table with drawers and an upper section with shelves for storage. The Hoosier Cabinet took the design a step further with increased storage and built-in efficiencies, such as flour bins, mechanical sifters and spice jars.

15. What is Indiana’s state song?

Indiana's state song is "On the Banks of the Wabash Far Away," penned by Terre Haute-native Paul Dresser. Published in 1898 and adopted by the General Assembly as the state song in 1913, it is Indiana's oldest official emblem.

16. For whom is Porter County named?

Porter County was formed in 1835 and named for Commodore David Porter, a naval hero in the War of 1812. Originally an agricultural community, the county has experienced a population boom since the 1970s as more of the industrial population moved to the area.

17. What was Elwood Haynes known for?

Inventor Elwood Haynes (1857-1925) was an automobile pioneer. He produced the first commercially built gasoline-powered automobile in Indiana, the Haynes "Pioneer," and road-tested it at Pumpkinville Pike on July 4, 1894. Haynes cars were built in Kokomo.

18. Which Hoosier astronaut died in a space capsule fire?

Born and raised in Mitchell, Indiana, Virgil I. "Gus" Grissom became one of the original Mercury astronauts for the American space program in 1959. After two flights for Project Mercury and Project Gemini, tragedy struck on Jan. 27, 1967. During a launch pad test of Apollo 1, a fire swept through the spacecraft. Grissom, Roger Chaffee and Ed White were killed by poisonous gases released by the fire.

19. What was Cole Porter known for?

Cole Porter is ranked as one of the greatest contributors to the Great American Songbook. He wrote more than 30 musical comedies, many with songs still performed today. Porter was born in 1891 and grew up in Peru.

20. What was the USS Indianapolis known for in World War II?

The cruiser USS Indianapolis delivered critical components of the atomic bomb that would be dropped on Hiroshima to Tinian in the Marianas Islands. Three days after it left Tinian, on July 30, 1945, the ship was sunk by a Japanese submarine; of the 1,200 men aboard, only 317 lived to be rescued after five days in shark-infested waters.

21. When was Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore created?

Efforts to maintain the natural area date from 1916, and the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore has been a national park since 1966. Porter County is home to the most popular section and includes the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore and Indiana Dunes State Park.

22. What Indiana city is famous worldwide for manufacturing musical instruments?

Elkhart is famous for manufacturing musical instruments, and the Elkhart-based company C.G. Conn is one of the oldest continuous manufacturer of band instruments in America. Charles Gerard Conn developed a special rubber-cushioned cornet mouthpiece in 1873 and the first American-built cornet in 1875.

23. What Indiana jail did John Dillinger escape from?

John Dillinger escaped from the Lake County jail in 1934.

24. Where was James Dean born?

James Dean was born on Feb. 8, 1931, in Marion, Indiana, and grew up in Fairmount. He starred in Rebel Without a Cause, East of Eden and Giant. Dean died on Sept. 30, 1955, the result of a car accident in California.

25. How was Purdue University created?

John Purdue came to Lafayette in 1839 as a young man. His activities as a businessman, educator, banker, farmer, railroad executive, newspaper owner and philanthropist helped the town grow. In 1869, he offered the state $150,000 to establish its land-grant university in Tippecanoe County bearing his name. Shortly afterward, Purdue University was founded.

26. Which Hoosier university is known for the number of astronauts it has graduated?

Purdue University is known for the number of astronauts it has graduated. The Purdue Aero Club formed in 1910 and aeronautical courses started in 1921. Since then, Purdue and its alumni, especially its 22 astronauts, have continued to play a pivotal role in the U.S. space program. Notable astronauts from Purdue include Virgil I. "Gus" Grissom, Neil Armstrong and Jerry Ross.

27. What kind of stone is Southern Indiana known for?

Southern Indiana is known for limestone, which has been the hallmark of the local economy of Bedford, in Lawrence County, since the 1870s. By the early 20th century, limestone had also become a major industry for Monroe County, aided by proximity to the Illinois Central Railroad. Having a variety of potential uses, the quarry stone was meticulously crafted to order by some of the state's finest artisans.

28. What industry is Batesville known for?

Batesville's primary industry is woodworking. Laid out in 1852, Batesville grew up along the railroad line, and timber in the area attracted buyers and craftsmen. By 1900, Batesville had six furniture factories, two coffin and casket plants, two sawmills, a door and a sash factory, and a novelty works.

29. Who was Tipton County named for?

Tipton County, organized in 1844, was named for General John Tipton, a distinguished citizen of the state and a U.S. senator.

30. Where was the first professional baseball game played?

The first professional baseball game was played in Fort Wayne. In 1871, the Kekiongas, named for the Miami Indian settlement in the area, won the first professional league game. On June 2, 1883, Hamilton Field in Fort Wayne hosted the first night baseball game played under artificial lights.

31. Where was the first successful goldfish farm in the United States?

The first successful goldfish farm was in Martinsville. In 1899, Max and Eugene Shireman turned their Martinsville swampland into the Grassyfork Fishery. It became the largest goldfish supplier in the world, producing 2 million fish per year.

32. When was the first Indy 500 held, and what was the average speed?

A crowd of 80,000 watched as Ray Harroun in the black-and-yellow Marmon Wasp won the first Indianapolis 500 on May 30, 1911, in 6 hours, 42 minutes and 8 seconds. His average speed was 74.59 miles per hour.

33. What is the largest natural lake completely inside the state’s boundaries?

Lake Wawasee is the state's largest natural lake. Originally called Turkey Lake, it became Lake Wawasee in honor of Miami Chief Wau-wa-aus-ee, "full moon,".or literally, "the round one."

34. In which Northwest Indiana city did the Lincoln funeral train stop?

Citizens of Michigan City gathered under a funeral arch for President Abraham Lincoln in 1865. His funeral train was forced to wait in Michigan City for a committee coming from Chicago to escort the train to its city. An impromptu funeral was held in Michigan City.

35. What was Red Skelton known for?

Richard Bernard "Red" Skelton was a Vincennes native. The red-haired cigar-chomping comedian was famous for his characters Freddy the Freeloader, Clem Kadiddlehopper and Dead-Eye. He achieved recognition as a clown, mime and radio and television entertainer. During the 1940s, the phrase "I dood it" caught on nationally from his radio show.

36. What late night talk show host was from Indiana?

David Letterman is an Indianapolis native who attended Ball State University. The David Letterman Communication and Media Building was dedicated on Ball State's campus in 2007.

37. What is New Harmony known for?

New Harmony is the site of two attempts at utopian living. The first, called Harmonie, was founded in 1814 by George Rapp. Then, in 1825, Robert Owen founded New Harmony in the same geographic area.

38. Who was the architect for the Indiana Statehouse?

In 1878, the Board of Statehouse Commissioners held a competition for the design of the new statehouse. After receiving more than 20 submissions, the board chose the design of Indianapolis architects Edwin May and Adolph Sherrer.

39. When and where was the nation’s first train robbery?

Seymour, at the junction of two railways, made its way into railroad history on Oct. 6, 1866, when the Reno gang committed the nation's first train robbery, there. The historic incident was reported a week later in the Seymour Times.

40. Who did Jim Davis create?

Jim Davis created the "Garfield" comic strip. The Ball State University alumnus also created Paws Inc., in 1981, an American comic book studio and production company.

41. Where was Grand Central Station for the Underground Railroad?

The Levi Coffin House in Fountain City, in Wayne County, was known as Grand Central Station for the Underground Railroad. More than 2,000 slaves were ushered to freedom through the home. The house has been named one of the 25 most historic sites in the U.S.

42. What did South Bend’s Studebaker Co. build before it built automobiles?

The Studebaker brothers began plying their trade as blacksmiths and wagon builders in South Bend around 1850. The company first built sturdy wagons to move travelers westward, then other wagons and carriages, and, finally, automobiles.

43. Who was the first president of Indiana University?

Andrew Wylie, first president of Indiana College, was described as "born to lead and not to follow." Wylie guided the school through a time of transition when the state legislature re-chartered the college as Indiana University in 1838.

44. What men-only liberal arts college is found in Indiana?

Wabash College in Crawfordsville started as an all-male preparatory school in 1832. It has grown to become one of the most nationally respected liberal arts colleges for men.

45. What Hoosier was one of the first black mayors of a major American city?

Richard Hatcher was one of the first black mayors of a major American city. An activist and attorney during the 1960s, Hatcher was sworn in as mayor of Gary in 1968.

46. What was the first town created in Indiana?

Vincennes is Indiana's oldest city and was the capital of the Indiana Territory. By 1732, French officer Francois-Marie Bissot, Sieur de Vincennes, had arrived and built an outpost and trading center there.

47. Who was William E. Biederwolf?

William E. Biederwolf was a minister in Logansport when the 161st Indiana Regiment was formed to help in the war with Spain. Biederwolf volunteered to serve as chaplain. As chaplain, he held services in a tent and spent much of his time visiting the sick and wounded soldiers in the hospital. He later wrote a history of the regiment.

48. Where in Indiana can you find a lighthouse?

You can find a lighthouse in Michigan City. Built by the U.S. government in 1858, it had a whale-oil lantern that was visible for 15 miles. Harriet Colfax, cousin of Vice President Schuyler Colfax, was the light keeper from 1861 to 1904. Today, it is a museum run by the Michigan City Historical Society.

49. For whom was the city of Gary named?

Built as a steel town, Gary was named for Elbert H. Gary, principal founder of U.S. Steel, in 1906.

50. Where was Indiana’s first interurban rail line?

Indiana's first interurban rail line was in Madison County. Charles L. Henry's Union Traction Co., the first electric rail line specifically designed for interurban service, began operating on Jan. 1, 1898. It ran from Alexandria to Anderson. Indiana became the traction center of the United States.

51. For what is poet Johnny Gruelle best known?

Johnny (Gruelle) is best known for his design of a rag doll for commercial manufacture. The doll, modeled on one with which his daughter, Marcella, played, became a legendary icon worldwide with her red yarn hair, painted face with black eyes, a tear-drop nose and intriguing happy smile. His 1915 patent application for a doll was followed three weeks later with an application for the trademark logo name "Raggedy Ann," a combination of two poems, "The Raggedy Man," and "Little Orphant Annie," written by Gruelle family friend, James Whitcomb Riley. You can read more in “Indiana's 200: The People Who Shaped the Hoosier State,” by Linda C. Gugin and James E. St. Clair.

52. What was Eugene Debs known for?

Eugene Debs was a founder of the American Railway Union and served as the union's first president. He organized the Social Democratic Party of America in 1897 and ran for the U.S. presidency in 1900, 1904, 1908, 1912 and 1920. He was convicted of violation of the Espionage Act in 1918 and sentenced to ten years in prison. President Harding pardoned Debs in 1921. You can read more about Debs' life and legacy in Indiana's 200: The People Who Shaped the Hoosier State edited by Linda C. Gugin and James E. St. Clair and published by IHS Press.

53. What was Levi Coffin known for?

Devout Quakers Levi Coffin and his wife, Catharine, were abolitionists who were actively involved in the Underground Railroad and owners and operators of a free-goods store and warehouse. The couple's home was in Newport (now Fountain City), Indiana. You can read more about the couple's life and legacy in “Indiana's 200: The People Who Shaped the Hoosier State,” edited by Linda C. Gugin and James E. St. Clair and published by IHS Press.

54. What was Hoagy Carmichael known for?

He was born Hoagland in Bloomington, Indiana, named after a traveling circus troupe called the Hoaglands who had lodged with the Carmichaels. He quickly became "Hoagy" as he grew up and became a composer of more than 600 songs — some 50 of hit status — including "Stardust," an American standard recorded by hundreds of artists as well as Carmichael himself. You can read more in “Indiana's 200: The People Who Shaped the Hoosier State,” by Linda C. Gugin and James E. St. Clair.

55. Who was Madame C.J. Walker?

Madam C.J. Walker created a product to stimulate hair growth and a steel comb that helped straighten hair. She established her own company and founded beauty schools in Indianapolis and several other major cities. Walker was the first black woman to become a millionaire. She donated to African-American charities and protested against segregation and lynching. A theater in Indianapolis is named in her honor.

56. Who was Wendell Willkie?

Wendell Willkie was the Republican candidate for president in 1940. Following his loss, he toured the world at the invitation of President Franklin D. Roosevelt, meeting the leaders of other countries. Following his trip, he wrote his famous book One World. You can read more about his life and legacy in Indiana's 200: The People Who Shaped the Hoosier State edited by Linda C. Gugin and James E. St. Clair and published by IHS Press.

57. Who was the only Hoosier elected U.S. president?

The only person elected from Indiana to the White House, Benjamin Harrison squired an impressive legislative agenda through Congress, deftly piloted the nation's foreign relations and effected significant changes in the nation's highest office. Nonetheless, an electorate wary of government activism turned him out after four years, and his important legacy soon faded from public consciousness. You can read more in “Indiana's 200: The People Who Shaped the Hoosier State,” by Linda C. Gugin and James E. St. Clair.

58. Who was Ryan White?

Hailed as a "kid pioneer," Ryan White of Kokomo, Indiana, became the focus of national attention during the 1980s with his crusade to attend school after he was diagnosed with acquired immune deficiency syndrome during an era when the disorder, then regarded as inevitably fatal, caused widespread panic. Only 14 years old when the news broke that he would fight to be readmitted to Western Middle School in Russiaville, White eventually was credited with humanizing AIDS patients to millions of Americans. You can read more in “Indiana's 200: The People Who Shaped the Hoosier State,” by Linda C. Gugin and James E. St. Clair.

59. Who was the first president of Indiana University?

Andrew Wylie, first president of Indiana College, was described by James Woodburn as "born to lead and not to follow." Wylie guided the school through a time of transition when the state Legislature re-chartered the college as Indiana University in 1838.

60. Who was Little Turtle?

Little Turtle was a Miami Indian chief. He fought against settlers in the Northwest Territory. After the Battle of Fallen Timbers in 1794, he reluctantly signed the Treaty of Greenville giving Indian

land to the United States.

61. What was Tecumseh’s claim to fame?

Tecumseh was born in the Shawnee town of Piqua, Ohio. He and his brother Tenskwatawa, or The Prophet, were important Shawnee leaders. When the Treaty of Greenville was signed, giving most of Ohio to whites, Indian tribes had to move to Indiana. Tecumseh began forming an Indian federation saying Indian lands should be considered common property and none should be sold without consent of all. He nearly succeeded in creating a very strong Indian force, but his tribe was defeated by William Henry Harrison at the Battle of Tippecanoe in 1811. He was killed at the Battle of the Thames in 1813.

62. Who was Ernie Pyle?

Ernie Pyle was a Pulitzer Prize-winning World War II correspondent and journalist who grew up in Dana, Indiana. He was beloved for his newspaper columns about the average GI. Pyle was one of the few American civilians killed during the war to be awarded the Purple Heart.

63. Who was Billy Sunday?

Billy Sunday was a professional baseball player who became the early 20th century's most prominent evangelist. He drew large crowds to hear his "fire and brimstone" sermons at Winona Lake in Indiana. You can read more about his life and legacy in Indiana's 200: The People Who Shaped the Hoosier State edited by Linda C. Gugin and James E. St. Clair and published by IHS Press.

64. Who was Albion Fellows Bacon?

Albion Frances Bacon became best known regionally and even nationally for her work on behalf of tenement reform. As she later wrote: "I began to notice how the threads of the social problems, the civic problems and even the business problems of a city are all tangled up with the housing problem, and to realize that housing reform is fundamental." When the Evansville City Council pigeonholed a proposed building ordinance that included a section concerning tenement house regulation that she had prepared, Bacon concluded that a statewide housing law was essential. She set about drafting such legislation, and during the spring of 1908 she sought information from all over the country. You can read more in “Indiana's 200: The People Who Shaped the Hoosier State,” by Linda C. Gugin and James E. St. Clair.

65. Who was Carl Graham Fisher?

In 1891, Carl Graham Fisher and his brothers opened a bicycle shop in Indianapolis. He became known as a daredevil cyclist. In 1904, Fisher, in partnership with James A. Allison, formed the Prest-O-Lite Co. which made acetylene head lamps. In 1909 he and Allison and two other partners purchased 400 acres of farmland in Marion County for a track that would later become the Indianapolis Motor Speedway. Fisher promoted the creation of the Lincoln and Dixie highways. He was also interested in helping to develop Miami, Florida as a vacation place. He lost his business interests in the 1929 Wall Street Crash.

66. Who was T.C. Steele?

Theodore Clement Steele began drawing as a child, and at the age of 12 was teaching schoolmates. With the financial support of friends, he and his family went to Germany where he studied art at the Munich Royal Academy. When he returned to Indiana, he painted portraits and landscapes, becoming best known for his landscapes. Steele loved his home state and settled in Brown County where he built his home called the House of the Singing Winds. A special edition of the book of the same name was released by IHS Press on April 15, 2016.

67. Who was Saint Theodora Guerin?

Saint Theodora Guerin came to Indiana in 1840. She overcame religious, gender and economic prejudice and established St. Mary-of-the-Woods, the oldest Catholic women's liberal arts college in the United States. Eventually, she opened 10 schools in the state of Indiana. She worked to educate the young and care for the poor and sick. On Oct. 15, 2006, she was declared a saint by Pope Benedict XVI and became the first resident of Indiana to receive the title.

68. Who was Homer E. Capehart?

Homer Capehart owned Capehart Farms in Daviess County near Washington. On Aug. 27, 1938, he organized the Republican Cornfield Convention to be held on his land. The many tents and activities that were set up drew thousands of visitors.

69. Who was George Rogers Clark?

George Rogers Clark was a trained surveyor and frontiersman. He also fought in the Revolutionary War. His brother William was famous for the Lewis and Clark expedition. In 1778, Patrick Henry, Governor of Virginia, gave him secret orders to go west and capture British forts in the area called the Illinois Country. The British had been helping the Indians attack settlers there. In 1779 Clark captured Fort Sackville at Vincennes, Indiana. This helped make the area safe for further settlement.

70. Who was Caleb Mills?

Caleb Mills was a teacher who came to Indiana from New Hampshire in 1833. He was the first professor at what would become Wabash College. He lobbied the government for a public school system in Indiana that would provide a free education for every child. This school system was finally put into place in 1852. Mills became the second superintendent of Indiana public schools in 1854.

71. Who was Frances Slocum?

Frances Slocum was taken from her family when she was 5 years old by Delaware braves. She was raised by a Delaware couple who settled in the Miami village of Kekionga near present day Fort Wayne, Indiana. In the early 1790s she married the Miami war chief Shepoconah. She adopted the name Maconaqua. In 1817 they moved to land near present day Peru, Indiana. When her family learned she was living they went to see her. However, Slocum chose to remain with the Indians until her death.

72. Who was Richard Gatling?

In 1862 Richard Gatling invented and patented the first Gatling gun, a hand-cranked rapid-fire weapon with 10 revolving barrels. Due to production problems, the weapon was not widely used during the Civil War, but later sold well. It was used in armed conflicts over the next 50 years.

73. What foreign correspondent from Indiana won a Pulitzer Prize for his work?

Pulitzer Prize-winning World War II correspondent and journalist Ernest (Ernie) Taylor Pyle grew up on a farm in Dana. He was killed by Japanese gunfire during World War II. He was one of the few American civilians killed during the war to be awarded the Purple Heart.

74. Who founded St. Meinrad Archabbey in Spencer County?

Saint Meinrad Archabbey was founded in 1854 by monks from Einsiedeln Abbey in Switzerland. A local priest had asked them for help to serve southern Indiana's growing German-speaking Catholic population. The Benedictine community now consists of about 100 men.

75. Who was Indiana’s first territorial governor?

The son of a signer of the Declaration of Independence, Virginia native William Henry Harrison was appointed governor of the Indiana Territory at age 27. He negotiated treaties to obtain Native American lands and won the Battle of Tippecanoe. Later he served in the War of 1812, represented Ohio in Congress and was elected president in 1840. He died after only 32 days in office and is buried in Ohio.

76. Which was the first county to be created after Indiana became a state?

Formed in 1817, Pike County was the first new county organized after Indiana became a state. It was named for General Zebulon Montgomery Pike who had discovered Pike's Peak four years earlier. He also fought at the Battle of Tippecanoe in 1811.

77. The Indiana War Memorial is a product of what major movement in Indiana?

The City Beautiful era reached its zenith in the 1920s with the construction of the Indiana World War Memorial Plaza in Indianapolis. The idea of large-scale public landscape design continued into the New Deal era. Other projects included saving the Indiana Dunes and the design of state and federal monuments.

78. How did Eastern Indiana Normal University become Ball State University?

After Eastern Indiana Normal University and several subsequent institutions closed, the Ball brothers of Muncie purchased the college's land and donated it to the state. Indiana State Normal School, Eastern Division, opened in 1918. In honor of the Ball family, Indiana's General Assembly changed the name to Ball Teachers College in 1922. The college grew and thrived, and was renamed Ball State University in 1965.

79. What was the Trade Palace?

The Trade Palace was Indianapolis' fashion center for women and children. Located on Washington Street, it also sold "dry goods, both American and European." In 1872 Lyman Ayres became a partner in the business. He lived in Geneva, New York and managed a successful store there. In 1874 Ayres moved to Indianapolis and took over management of the Trade Palace. This was the beginning of what came to be known as L. S. Ayres and Co

80. How did Indiana address the tuberculosis epidemic?

Tuberculosis was the leading cause of death of Hoosiers in the early 1900s. Steps to control and prevent TB began with broader testing and reporting of the disease. TB hospitals were built to treat patients, and open-air schools were established to try and prevent the disease from spreading.

81. Who was David Curtis Stephenson?

D.C. Stephenson came to Indiana in 1920. He joined the KKK and became Grand Dragon. His swift rise to power did not last. In 1925, he was convicted for the murder of Madge Oberholtzer. The highly publicized trial discredited the KKK in Indiana.

82. Which two major literary figures were born in Vevay?

Vevay is the birthplace of Hoosier literary figures, brothers Edward and George Eggleston. Edward (1837-1902) had many careers, but is best known for his novel “The Hoosier Schoolmaster” (1871). George (1839-1911) was a Confederate soldier, lawyer and editor, who published more than 40 novels.

83. Who was John T. McCutcheon?

John T. McCutcheon was one of the leading illustrators and cartoonists of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Working for Chicago newspapers, the Morning News, the Record and the Tribune, he chronicled life and politics of the period. By the time he retired completely in 1946, he was known as the "Dean of American Cartoonists." McCutcheon died in Lake Forest, Illinois, in 1949.

84. Who was Tony Hulman?

During World War II, auto racing was banned and the Indianapolis Motor Speedway fell into disrepair. In 1945, Anton "Tony" Hulman, a multimillionaire businessman from Terre Haute, bought the dilapidated property in a deal with three time Indy 500 winner, Wilbur Shaw who became president and general manager. They resurrected it as a premier racing facility. Upon Wilbur Shaw's death in 1954, Hulman became president of IMS. He continued the tradition popularized by Shaw, beginning each race: "Gentlemen start your engines." Mari Hulman George, Hulman's daughter, and her family still own the Speedway.

85. What is the significance of the statue outside the Owen County courthouse?

The Spirit of the American Doughboy sits on the lawn of the Owen County courthouse in Spencer, which is the home of its creator, E. M. Visquesney. The sculpture is pressed copper and was dedicated in 1927. The artist, Visquesney, created many of these beautiful statues for display across the United States, with only a few remaining. It was designed to honor the veterans and casualties of World War I. Nicknames for the stature are "The Doughboy" or "Iron Mike."

86. What is the connection between French explorers, Pere Jacques Marquette and Rene-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, and the state of Indiana?

Father Jacques Marquette and Rene-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle met at the St. Joseph River. Pere Jacques Marquette, a Jesuit priest, camped around Lake Michigan in 1675. Four years later, La Salle and his small company paddled their canoes up the St. Joseph River. La Salle continued his expeditions and later claimed the entire Mississippi Basin for France.

87. Who was George Kessler?

Kansas-based landscape architect George Kessler designed the World's Fair site in St. Louis. His vision of a "model city" immediately caught the attention of Indianapolis city planners. His goal was to make cities more beautiful, functional and healthier places to live. Kessler visited the city in 1905 and was appalled to see a bridge over Fall Creek being used as a dump. In 1908, the Park Board officially hired Kessler to design a plan for the city, augmenting a previous one prepared by the Olmsted brothers.

88. Where were prisoners of war kept in Indiana during World War II?

From the spring of 1943 to 1946, a portion of Camp Atterbury was used to house Italian and later German prisoners of war.

89. What does the museum inside Monument Circle in Indianapolis honor?

The museum housed inside the basement of the Soldiers and Sailors monument on Monument Circle in Indianapolis honors the Civil War.

90. Who was James Oliver?

In 1857, James Oliver patented "An Improvement in Chilling Plowshares." His "chilled" plows were less brittle and scoured better than other plows. By the 1880s, Oliver's South Bend factory was said to be the world's largest plow manufacturer.

91. What famous acts were part of the Cole Brothers Circus, which kept its winter headquarters in Rochester from 1935 to 1940?

In 1935, Equestrienne Jennie O'Brien joined the circus with her horse Mike O'Doud. Other Cole Brothers Circus performers included lion tamer Clyde Beatty, clown Emmett Kelly and cowboy star Ken Maynard.

92. Who was Will Geer?

Will Geer was a Hollywood actor and Clinton County native. Geer was best known for playing Grandpa Walton on the popular 1970s TV show “The Waltons.”

93. What made French Lick a tourism hot spot?

The natural sulfur springs of Orange County, Indiana, turned French Lick, as well as West Baden, into spa towns. In the early 1900s, the French Lick Springs Hotel became a popular place for the political and social elite from across the country. The grounds included a golf course, bridle paths, swimming pools and skeet and trap ranges.

94. Who was Ambrose E. Burnside?

Ambrose Everett Burnside was a Union army general who was born near Liberty, Indiana. Burnside also invented a breech-loading rifle, became a railroad executive and served as Rhode Island's governor and U.S. senator. Noted for his unusual facial hair, his "burnsides" are now called "sideburns."

95. Who was John Watson Foster?

John Watson Foster served as U.S. Secretary of State under President Benjamin Harrison.

96. Who was Walter Bedell Smith?

Walter Bedell "Beetle" Smith was born in Indianapolis, attended Manual High School and entered the Indiana National Guard in 1911. He rose through the ranks, eventually becoming General Dwight D. Eisenhower's Chief of Staff. In this crucial role, Smith helped oversee the June 6, 1944 D-Day invasion. Eleven months later, on May 7, 1945, he negotiated and signed the German surrender document. Later in life, he served as an ambassador to the Soviet Union and as head of the CIA.

97. Who was Harvey W. Wiley?

Harvey W. Wiley was an Indiana native who went on to an illustrious career as one of the nation's leading food safety authorities. As chief chemist of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, he authored the Pure Food and Drug Act in 1906. He received numerous honors throughout his lifetime and was featured on a 3-cent postage stamp in 1956.

98. What was historic about the 1955 state basketball championship game?

In 1955, Crispus Attucks became the first Indianapolis team to win the Indiana High School Athletic Association state championship in basketball and the first all-black school in the nation to win this type of tournament. The following year, Attucks went on to become the first undefeated team to win the championship. Crispus Attucks would go on to win its third title of the decade in 1959.

99. How was Frederick Douglass treated when he visited Pendleton?

Abolitionist Frederick Douglass visited Pendleton, Indiana, on Sept. 16, 1843, to give a speech. While there he was attacked by a mob, and his hand was permanently injured during the incident. Douglass described the attack in vivid detail in his autobiography, “My Bondage and My Freedom.”

100. Who was Jim Jones?

Jim Jones was a religious leader who founded the People's Temple. He moved the church from Indiana to California in 1965 and started churches in Los Angeles and San Francisco. He and his followers moved to Jonestown, Guyana in the 1970s. He led a mass suicide there on November 18, 1978.

101. Who was Lew Wallace?

Lew Wallace served in the Mexican War from 1846-1847. After the war, he established his law practice in Indianapolis and was elected to the State Senate in 1856. In 1861, Gov. Morton appointed him adjutant general. Wallace went on to have a distinguished military career. He was a member of the court-martial that tried the conspirators in the Lincoln assassination in 1865. From 1878-1881, Wallace served as governor of the New Mexico Territory. In 1881, he was appointed U.S. minister to Turkey and stayed in that job until 1885. Wallace authored several books, including “Ben Hur.”

102. Who was Eddie Rickenbacker?

Eddie Rickenbacker was a relief driver in the 1911 Indianapolis 500 Mile Race and competed as a driver until 1916. He bought the track from Carl Fisher in 1927 and owned it until 1945, keeping it viable through the Depression years. Rickenbacker commissioned a golf course, with nine holes inside the track and nine holes to the east of the backstretch.

103. Who was George Ade?

George Ade was a humorist, author, playwright and newspaper columnist. After graduating from Purdue in 1887, he worked as a journalist in Lafayette before taking a job at the Chicago Daily News. His daily column was titled Stories of the Streets and of the Town. In the early 1900s, he became the first author to have three plays running on Broadway at the same time. He is best known for his book “Fables in Slang.”

104. Who was Albert Von Tilzer?

Albert Von Tilzer's real name was Albert Gumm. He and his brother used their mother's maiden name, Tilzer. He was born in Indianapolis and worked in the family's business. In 1899, he moved to Chicago and worked as a staff pianist and songplugger at his brother's company Shapiro, Bernstein and Von Tilzer. In 1903, he moved to New York City and started his own music publishing business. He was also a vaudeville performer. In 1908, he wrote the song "Take me Out to the Ballgame." He moved to Hollywood, California in 1930 and wrote music for movies.

105. Who was Max Ehrmann?

Max Ehrmann was born in Terre Haute, Indiana. He attended DePauw University and edited the DePauw Weekly. He later studied law and philosophy at Harvard. He worked as a lawyer at his brother's overall factory in Terre Haute, but he really wanted to be a writer. He wrote "A Prayer" in 1903. It was displayed at the 1905 World's Fair and published in the Congressional Record in 1909. He wrote the prose poem "Desiderata" in 1927. In 1971, a recording of the poem Desiderata made it to the Top 10 chart, and it won a Grammy Award the following year.

106. Who is Robert Indiana?

Robert Indiana was born Robert Clark and later adopted the name of his home state. He studied at Herron School of Art in Indianapolis and the Munson-Williams-Proctor Arts Institute in New York. He completed his studies at the School of the Art Institute of Chicago. He has been a fellow at The University of Edinburgh and the Edinburgh College of Art in Scotland. Mr. Indiana is known for his Pop Art of geometric paintings and sculptures that incorporate letters and other signs. One of his most famous works is the "Love" sculpture.

107. Who is Oscar Robertson?

Oscar Robertson attended Crispus Attucks High School in Indianapolis and was known as the "Big O." He was a member of the first African-American high school team to win the state championship. They won two years in a row, 1955 and 1956. He went on to play at The University of Cincinnati, and he was on the gold medal-winning team in the 1960 Olympics. Robertson played as a pro for the Cincinnati Royals and the Milwaukee Bucks.

108. Who was Modecai "Three Fingers" Brown?

Mordecai Brown played baseball for 14 years in the major leagues, including pitching several seasons for the Chicago Cubs. In 1949, he was inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame. His nickname had to do with the loss of one finger and the paralysis of another finger in two different farm accidents as a child. After retiring from baseball, Brown opened a filling station in Terre Haute.

109. Who was Bill Peet?

As a child, Bill Peet spent much of his time drawing pictures. He was awarded a scholarship to study at Herron Art Institute in Indianapolis. He went to work for Walt Disney studios and worked on several animated films including “Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs” and “Song of the South.” He wrote the script and helped animate “101 Dalmatians”. In 1964, he left the Disney Studios to write children's books. His autobiography was a Caldecott Honor Book in 1990.

110. Who was Noble Sissle?

Noble Sissle was a famous musician, playwright and composer. As a young man, he had an orchestra that played at the Severin Hotel in Indianapolis. He helped write and produce the musical Shuffle Along in 1921. Some of his well-known songs include "I'm Just Wild About Harry" and "You Were Meant for Me."

111. Who was Phil Harris?

Phil Harris was a musician and became known for his music and comedy on the Jack Benny radio show from 1936-1946. He and his wife, Alice Faye, had their own radio show from 1946-1954. He was the voice of several Walt Disney cartoon characters, including Baloo the Bear in “The Jungle Book.”

112. Who is David Wolf?

David Wolf is a NASA astronaut and a graduate of North Central High School in Indianapolis. He earned an engineering degree from Purdue University and a medical degree from Indiana University. In 1983, he joined the medical sciences division of the Johnson Space Center, serving as chief engineer on the international space station's medical facility. He was chosen as an astronaut in 1990, and he made his first Space Shuttle flight in 1993.

113. Who was Marie Webster?

Marie Webster was one of the most influential quilt designers of the 20th century. Her book, “Quilts: Their Story and How to Make Them” was published in 1915. It was the first book written on the history of quilting. She also ran a successful quilt pattern business from her home in Marion, Indiana, which has been restored and is now on the National Historic Register.

114. Who was Oscar Charleston?

Oscar Charleston was a professional baseball player and manager of the Negro Leagues from 1915 through the 1950s. His career began playing for the Indianapolis ABCs in 1915 and included stops with several teams during his lengthy career, including the Harrisburg Giants, Pittsburgh Crawfords and Philadelphia Stars. Many who saw Charleston play considered him one of the finest all-around players in Negro leagues history. Charleston was elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1976.

115. What is Indiana’s state bird?

In 1933, the Indiana General Assembly chose the cardinal to be the state bird of Indiana. Also known as the redbird, the cardinal is the state bird of seven states: Indiana, Illinois, Ohio, North Carolina, Kentucky, Virginia and West Virginia. The bright red males are easily spotted, especially in the winter. Female cardinals are brown with a dusty red crest. Cardinals build nests in bushes and brushy areas and are frequent visitors to bird feeders.

116. What is the origin of the term “Hoosier”?

No one seems to know how the term "Hoosier" came to be. But, one of the earliest known uses of the term is found in an 1827 letter that states, "There is a Yankee trick for you - done up by a Hoosier." Other early uses also provide some clues about the meaning of the word. In 1831, Gen. John Tipton received a proposal from a businessman offering to name his boat the "Indiana Hoosier" if Tipton would give him business in the area. Sarah Harvey, a Quaker from Richmond, explained in an 1835 letter to her relatives, "old settlers in Indiana are called 'Hooshers' and the cabins they first live in 'Hoosher nests'..."

117. What is depicted on the state's seal?

Indiana's state seal depicts a scene from the pioneer era of the territory and state. There are three hills in the background. A setting sun is beginning to disappear behind the hills. On the right of the seal are two sycamore trees and a woodsman with his ax is nearby. He has begun to cut a notch in one of the trees. A buffalo in the foreground is jumping over a log and facing to the left. The ground near the woodsman and buffalo is sprouting shoots of blue grass.

118. What is Indiana’s state stone?

The State Stone, Salem Limestone, which is quarried in south and central Indiana, was adopted by the 1971 General Assembly.

119. What do the symbols on the state flag mean?

The Indiana General Assembly adopted the Indiana state flag in 1917. The flag was designed by Paul Hadley of Mooresville as part of Indiana's centennial celebration flag design contest. The flag has a blue background with yellow symbols. The torch in the middle of the flag represents liberty and enlightenment. The rays illustrate their far-reaching influence. There are a total of 19 stars on the flag, with the outer circle representing the 13 colonies. The stars in a semi-circle stand for the states admitted to the Union prior to Indiana. The star directly above the torch symbolizes Indiana, the 19th state.

120. What is Indiana’s state river?

The 1996 General Assembly adopted the Wabash River as the State River. The Wabash flows from Ohio through Indiana to the Indiana/Illinois border before flowing south to the Ohio River.

121. Where was Indiana’s first state capital?

Corydon was Indiana’s first state capital. The town was centrally located in southern Indiana, making it an ideal choice over the previous capital, Vincennes. Forty-three delegates gathered in Corydon in June 1816 to write the first state constitution. Travel back in time to Corydon during the constitutional convention and learn about life in the early 1800s by visiting the Indiana Historical Society’s interactive exhibit, You Are There 1816: Indiana Joins the Nation.

122. Who was Indiana’s first governor?

Indiana’s first governor was Jonathan Jennings, a young and ambitious politician from Clark County. Jennings grew in public esteem as a territorial delegate representing Indiana in Congress for seven years. Visitors to the Eugene and Marilyn Glick Indiana History Center in Indiana can meet Jennings as he serves as president of the constitutional convention in Corydon in 1816 as part of the Indiana Historical Society’s interactive exhibit, You Are There 1816: Indiana Joins the Nation. Jennings was elected governor not long after the convention.

123. What and where was the Constitutional Elm?

The Constitutional Elm, a tree once located in Corydon, provided shade near the location of the 1816 constitutional convention. While tales of the tree have grown over the many generations since 1816, the Constitutional Elm remains an important part of the state’s founding. The elm died from disease in the 1920s, but visitors can still visit the marker that remains of the great tree in Corydon. Visitors can also come learn about the constitutional convention that took place in the shade of the elm at the Indiana Historical Society’s exhibit, You Are There 1816: Indiana Joins the Nation, in Indianapolis.

124. Why did Indiana need a new constitution, and when was it ratified?

Indiana kept the first state constitution until lawmakers passed a new one in 1851. Although Hoosiers had tried to vote for a revised constitution in previous years, including a major vote in favor of a new constitution in 1846, the constitutional convention did not come into fruition until the fall of 1850. While the 1816 constitution guided Indiana in the initial years after becoming a new state, the needs of a society growing in complexity soon outgrew the dated document. Indiana government and laws operate under the 1851 constitution version, which has evolved with the adoption of amendments overtime. Come view an original, handwritten copy of the 1816 constitution at the Indiana Historical Society in Indianapolis.

125. Who was president when Indiana became a state?

James Madison, fourth president of the United States, signed the resolution admitting Indiana into the Union as the 19th state on Dec. 11, 1816.

126. What kinds of products has Ball Corp. produced?

Ball Corp., once based in Muncie, has made a number of products over its 136-year history. The Ball brothers initially formed the company in New York to make wooden-jacketed cans. Operations quickly switched to glass jars. A move to Muncie, Indiana, during the Gas Boom of the 1880s allowed the Ball Brothers Co.’s glass jar business to succeed. Over the years, the company became involved in other types of manufacture. While it no longer makes glass jars, Ball Corp. is still successful in its metal beverage can and aerospace product lines. The Indiana Historical Society in Indianapolis has an exhibit, You Are There 1948: Communities Can, on the use of Ball glass jars for canning. Visit and learn more about how people over the decades have been using jars to eat their favorite foods year-round.

127. Who was the first astronaut from Indiana to go into space?

Virgil I. “Gus” Grissom from Mitchell, Indiana, and a graduate of Purdue University, was the first Hoosier to go into space. One of the Original 7 astronauts selected by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Grissom became the second American to make it into space with his approximately 15-minute flight onboard the Liberty Bell 7 spacecraft on July 21, 1961. He became the first person to fly in space twice when he made a three-orbit voyage with John Young on the Gemini 3 spacecraft on March 23, 1965. Grissom lost his life along with fellow astronauts Ed White and Roger Chaffee in the Apollo 1 fire on Jan. 27, 1967.

128. Who was Goethe Link?

A native of Warrick County, Indiana, Goethe Link was a noted Indianapolis physician who specialized in the treatment of thyroid problems. He became famous, however, for one of his hobbies — astronomy. In 1937 he began construction of an observatory in Morgan County. The observatory began operations in 1939 and in 1948 Doctor Link donated the observatory and grounds to Indiana University. The observatory was used regularly for research until the 1980s, when light pollution from Indianapolis suburbs restricted research at the site. Today, the Goethe Link Observatory is operated jointly by IU and the Indiana Astronomical Society. Link died at age 101 in 1981.

129. What is the oldest artifact in the Indiana Historical Society's collection?

The oldest three-dimensional artifacts are 32 fossils, which the Indiana Historical Society acquired when it received the Vincent H. Day family collection out of Putnam County. Many of the fossils are brachiopods and crinoids, possibly from the Devonian Period, about 419.2 million years ago to the beginning of the Carboniferous Period, about 358.9 million years ago. The oldest printed item in the collection is likely the famous Münster map, from as early as 1540. It can be found in the IHS Press book Mapping Indiana: Five Centuries of Treasures from the Indiana Historical Society.

130. In Kokomo, what was Old Ben’s claim to fame?

"Old Ben" was the largest steer that ever lived, weighing 2-1/2 tons and measuring more than 16 feet in length. He died in 1910, and has been on display since 1919.

131. Why is there a large stump inside a building in Kokomo?

The stump inside the building is from a giant Sycamore tree that stood along the banks of the Wildcat west of Kokomo. Once used as a phone booth, the tree is now protected in a class enclosed building. Estimated to be 1000 years old, it is 57 feet in circumference, 217 inches in diameter.

132. Where is the only county in the United States with two functioning courthouses?

LaPorte County. The circuit court house is in LaPorte (the county seat) and superior courthouse is in Michigan City.

133. How old is the Indiana State Prison in Michigan City?

The Indiana State Prison in Michigan City was built in 1860. It was originally called Prison North.

134. How did Ballstown in Ripley County get its name?

Samuel Ball established Ballstown Post Office in 1844, platting the town in 1848 with 30 lots, a store, German churches, mills, a blacksmith and a school that served the community.

135. Who was Joaquin Miller?

Born Cincinnatus Hiner Miller in Liberty, Union County, Joaquin Miller was an eccentric writer-adventurer who spent much of his life in the American West. He is best known for "Songs of the Sierras" and "Pacific Poems."

136. Who was Harland David Sanders?

Harland David Sanders was born in Henryville and lived in several towns throughout Indiana. He is best known as Colonel Sanders. Sanders began cooking as a child and later perfected the method of using a pressure cooker to fry chicken, using a seasoning recipe he had created. He called it Kentucky Fried Chicken. By 1964, he had 600 restaurants franchised to sell his chicken. He sold his interest in the company that year but remained as the spokesperson.

137. Who was John Milton Hay?

John Milton Hay served as ambassador to the United Kingdom and then Secretary of State during the administrations of William McKinley and Theodore Roosevelt. Earlier in his career, the Salem, Indiana native became then-President Abraham Lincoln's private secretary and was with Lincoln when the president was shot at Ford's Theatre.

138. What is the top country of origin for Hoosier ancestors?

Over a third of all Hoosiers claim German ancestry, making Germans the largest ethnic group in the state. Germans first arrived in the area in the early 18th century, though most arrived from the mid-19th to early 20th centuries. The main reasons for immigration were political, religious and economic.

139. What is Indiana’s longest continually running radio station?

Purdue's WBAA-AM, licensed on April 4, 1922, began broadcasting on April 22, 1922, with programming concerning Arbor Day. Today, WBAA is the longest continually broadcasting radio station in Indiana, broadcasting 24/7 on both AM and FM stations.

140. Who was Herman Wells?

In 1938, at age 35, Herman B. Wells became Indiana University's 11th president and the country's youngest state university president. He served a quarter century as president and remained a vital contributor as the first IU chancellor. Wells was an educational visionary who helped transform IU into an internationally recognized center of research and scholarship.

141. Name some of the makes and models of automobiles that were manufactured in Auburn, Indiana.

Auburn, Indiana supported several automobile manufacturers over the years. Cars produced there include Auburn, Black, Cord, DeKalb, DeSoto, Eckhart, Handy Wagon, IMP, Kiblinger, McIntyre, Model, Saf-T-Cab, Union, and Zimmerman. Today, the Auburn-Cord-Duesenberg Museum is located in the former Auburn Automobile Co. building.

142. Which county courthouse did the Works Progress Administration build in the mid to late 1930s?

In the 1930s, the Works Progress Administration, a huge emergency relief program, helped put people back to work. WPA developed recreational and wildlife property bordering the Tippecanoe River, and in 1943, 2,761 acres of it became Tippecanoe River State Park in Pulaski County. In addition they participated in building projects, such as the one for the Shelby County Courthouse which was built between 1936 and 1937.

143. Which Hoosier famously said, “What this country needs is a good 5-cent cigar”?

Hoosier Thomas R. Marshall is often attributed as the person who famously said, "What this country needs is a good 5-cent cigar." Marshall served as Indiana governor and was U.S. vice president under Woodrow Wilson. He was known for his dry humor. [There is some dispute as to whether he said it.]

144. How did the Wabash River get its name?

The Wabash River got its name from the name given to it by the Miami Tribe. The Miami name for the river, Wah-bah-shik-ki, means pure white, bright and natural and refers to a limestone bed in the upper part of the river.

145. What is Indiana's official state pie?

Indiana's official state pie is the sugar cream pie.

146. What did Valparaiso choose to build in place of a traditional Civil War monument?

Instead of erecting a traditional monument to commemorate Civil War soldiers, Valparaiso decided to build the Memorial Opera House. Local architect Charles F. Lembke designed the 1893 building. It still stands in the downtown square.

147. Which county is home to the third largest Amish community in the United States?

LaGrange County is home to the third largest Amish community in the United States. LaGrange County was organized in 1832 and named for Revolutionary War General Marquis de Lafayette's french home, Chateau de la Grange-Bleneau (La Grange means "the farm" in french.)

148. Who was Dan Patch?

Dan Patch may be the most famous celebrity to come out of Oxford, Indiana, in Benton County. From the time the horse started racing in 1900 until he stopped racing against competition in 1909, Dan Patch never lost a race. The champion stallion was known for being gentle and easy to handle. He earned more than $2 million, a fortune at the time.

149. Indiana once had more of what type of barns than any other state?

At the height of their popularity, Indiana had more round barns than any other state. Of the 226 round barns identified in Indiana in a Round Barn Survey (initiated by John T. Hanou), only 111 remained in 1992.

150. What was the Beast of Busco?

According to legend, the Beast of Busco was a giant snapping turtle that terrorized the town of Churubusco in 1949. Tourists swarmed the town during a month-long hunt, but the turtle was never found. Today, the community holds an annual festival called Turtle Days.

151. What was William Wirt best known for?

Gary city school superintendent William A Wirt achieved national recognition by shaping schools to the practical, everyday needs of society, particularly the industrial society of the Calumet Region. The "work-study-play" curricula included traditional academic subjects, vocational training and physical education. In 1913, the state legislature responded to the trend by requiring schools in Indiana towns and rural areas to provide courses in vocational education, including agricultural education.

152. What federal law created the Indiana Territory?

The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 laid the foundation for government in the West, including the creation of the Indiana Territory in 1800. The ordinance allowed for the gradual transfer of power from the federal government to a group of western territories until a democratic balance was struck.

153. What is the movie “Hoosiers” about?

The movie “Hoosiers” is about the Milan miracle. Even though Milan High School only had 162 students and none of its players was over six feet, two inches tall, Milan won the state championship in 1954. Milan defeated Muncie Central, in large part, because of Bobby Plump's 15-foot jump shot in the final seconds of the game.

154. When did Indiana establish public schools?

Indiana's 1851 constitution established a system of common schools and resulted in the passage of the 1852 Free School Law. The 1852 law mandated that counties statewide provide at least three months of free common-school education and set up a system to administer it.

155. What importance do canals have in Indiana history?

Canal mania spread throughout the state with the opening of the Wabash and Erie Canal as far south as Huntington on July 4, 1835. Canal construction required massive amounts of work: from the first surveys of the land, to engineers designing bridges, to laborers removing trees and digging out the canal. Yet for the many workers who were new immigrants, the work also held out the possibility of a permanent home in the "flourishing and rapidly growing state."

156. Who was Earl Butz?

Earl Butz served as dean of agriculture at Purdue and later as secretary of agriculture under Presidents Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford. He refuted claims that agriculture was a declining industry. He argued that even though a smaller share of the population was directly involved in farming, the industries of processing and distribution still employed and provided for millions of people.

157. Where was the only Civil War battle in Indiana fought?

On July 10, 1863, General John Hunt Morgan and his raiders pillaged the town of Salem, Indiana. The raiders burned the town's depot, cut off its communications and demanded ransom from merchants. Morgan's Raid was the only significant Confederate attack in Indiana during the Civil War.

158. During the Civil War, what did “Copperheads” mean?

During the Civil War, Copperheads was a term referring to a group of anti-war Democrats. Pro-war Republicans likened them to snakes in the grass, who, in opposing the war effort, would aid the Confederacy.

159. What was the Golden Age of Indiana Literature?

The Golden Age was a term used to describe the decades around 1900, due the outpouring of literature and art. The poetry of James Whitcomb Riley, the Pulitzer Prize-winning novels of Booth Tarkington, and the paintings of T. C. Steele attracted state and national admiration. In fact, the number of best-selling books by Indiana authors exceeded that from any other state except New York.

160. What was the Michigan Road?

Michigan Road was a main highway that brought better north-south transportation to Indiana when it opened in 1836. Construction of the road began in 1826, when the Potawatomi Indians gave up a strip of land north of the Wabash and additional parcels of land. Ironically, this made it easier to remove the Potawatomi in 1838. It also stimulated white settlement in northern Indiana.

161. Who was John Wooden?

John Wooden was a basketball legend who played for the Martinsville Artesians before going on to play for Purdue where he made All American three years running. After coaching stints at South Bend Central High School and Indiana State University, Wooden went to UCLA where he became one of the most revered coaches in sports history. During his 27 years at the school, the Bruins had a record 88-game winning streak and won ten National College Athletic Association titles in 12 years.

162. Where in Indiana was the P-47 Thunderbolt made?

The P-47 Thunderbolts were built in Evansville by the Republic Aviation Co. They were built inside a massive aircraft factory on the city's north side and used as fighter planes and bomber escorts during World War II.

163. Who was the longest-serving justice on the Indiana Supreme Court?

Randall Shepard holds the honor of longest-serving justice on the Indiana Supreme Court. Nominated in 1985, at the age of 38, Shepard was selected chief justice less than two years later and served in that role until retiring in 2012.

164. What French fort was built near Lafayette in 1717 and why?

Fort Ouiatenon was constructed by the government of New France (Canada) as a means to facilitate trade with the Indian Tribes that lived in the Wabash Valley but more importantly, as a military outpost to protect against Great Britain's western expansion into the Trans Allegheny west. Ouiatenon was once described as the "finest palisaded fort in the upper country" and became one of the most successful trading posts in the region. It acted as a central trading hub for the neighboring Wea and Kickapoo villages in the Wabash Valley.

165. How well-traveled is the Potter-Haan House in Lafayette?

The Potter-Haan house in Lafayette was first constructed in 1904 in St. Louis, Missouri as the State of Connecticut pavilion for the 1904 St. Louis World's Fair. After the fair ended, it was dismantled and moved to Lafayette by Mr. and Mrs. William Potter as their personal residence. Total distance traveled by this house is about 270 miles from where it was first built. The house is now owned by Bob and Ellie Haan and operated as the Haan Mansion Museum, at 920 E. State Street in Lafayette.

166. Why does the Grand Kankakee Marsh no longer exist?

Our lack of foresight destroyed it. Farmers coveted the soil, and in 1882 the state's chief engineer recommended the entire wetland be drained for agricultural purposes. The new farmland was among the most productive in the world, but the draining of the Kankakee River hurt wildlife, eliminating one-fifth of the U.S. migratory bird population. Today efforts are underway to bring back some of the wetlands.

167. Who are some of the famous people buried at Crown Hill Cemetery in Indianapolis?

The most famous are Hoosier poet James Whitcomb Riley, buried on the top of Crown Hill, and Indiana's only president, Benjamin Harrison. Other notables include author/playwright Booth Tarkington; Eli Lilly, who launched the pharmaceutical company of the same name; inaugural Indy 500 driver Cannonball Baker, and gangster John Dillinger.

168. Who was the first female Hoosier in Congress?

Democrat Virginia Jenckes was elected from Terre Haute in 1932. She built her campaign around two issues, federally funded flood control and repeal of Prohibition, both which she said would help farmers in her district. In Congress she supported New Deal legislation though she was critical of programs that gave something for nothing. She served three terms before losing to Republican Noble Johnson in 1938.

169. Who or what created the mounds at Mounds State Park?

Among the first inhabitants of our state were the Adena, a hunting and gathering people that lived in east central Indiana beginning around 1000 B.C. They built these earthen monuments, which were probably connected to astronomical events or seasonal calendars, and perhaps based religious celebrations around them.

170. Where can I see remnants of one of Indiana’s early canals?

You can see a three-mile section of the Wabash and Erie Canal in Delphi and take a 35-minute floating trip on a canal boat replica. The Wabash-Erie Canal was Indiana's longest, stretching 468 miles and surpassing the Erie Canal in length. It was completed in 1853 and abandoned in 1874, a victim of the newer, more efficient transportation system called the railroad.

171. How did Unigov come about in Indianapolis?

Mayor Richard Lugar and other Republican leaders devised Unigov to increase governmental efficiency and halt the erosion of the tax base caused by residents moving to the suburbs during the 1960s. Prior to Unigov, Marion County government was a confusing patchwork of 60 different governing bodies, and it was difficult to collaborate on issues facing the entire metropolitan area. The unified government brought most of those units under one umbrella, stabilized the budget and restored the city's AAA bond rating. It also became a model for cities looking to deal with urban blight.

172. How many Carnegie libraries were built in Indiana?

Indiana received more Carnegie grants than any other state, $2.6 million in all, enough to build 164 libraries in 155 cities and towns from 1901 to 1922. Today 106 of those are still functioning libraries. Others have become restaurants, homes and galleries. Sad to say, 18 were demolished by human hands or natural disaster.

173. What’s the historical significance of Fort Ouiatenon?

This was the name of a French fortified post built in 1717 along the Wabash River to deter British settlement and facilitate the fur trade. The French traded frequently with the adjacent Wea Band of Miami, who grew maize, melons and pumpkins. The fort flourished until about 1760 during the French and Indian War, when British and American colonists drove out most of the French.

174. What Hoosier city was the site of the first hanging of a white man for killing Indians, on Jan. 12, 1825?

The hanging occurred at the Fall Creek Falls in Pendleton. James Hudson was sentenced to death along with three others after attacking a peaceful clan of Seneca and Miami camped along Deer Lick Creek.

175. Where in Indiana did former Vice President Dan Quayle grow up?

Huntington, Indiana, in Huntington County, is the hometown of J. Danforth Quayle, the ninth Hoosier nominated for the vice presidency and the fifth to be elected.

176. What is the Wigwam?

The Anderson High School Wigwam in Anderson, Madison County, was completed in 1961. It was the second-largest high school gymnasium in Indiana, with seats for more than 8,000 people. It was closed in 2011.

177. What was the first town in the state to have a street paved with brick?

Tipton, Indiana, in Tipton County, was the first town in the state to have a street paved with brick. In 1890, two and a half blocks of common building brick were laid on Jefferson Street.

178. Which county is nicknamed the "shoestring county" and why?

Vermillion County is nicknamed the "shoestring county" for its shape, which is 37 miles in length and an average of seven miles in width.

179. What was Indiana's first state park?

As part of the state's centennial, McCormick's Creek State Park in Owen County became Indiana's first state park on July 4, 1916. Named for the McCormick family, who settled the land in 1816, the park features many waterfalls and a canyon that is a mile long and 100 feet deep.

180. What county courthouse is famous for a tree growing in its tower?

The Decatur County courthouse in Greensburg is famous for a tree growing in its tower. The first tree in the tower was not discovered until the early 1870s. At one time, there were eight trees located in the tower; all but one was removed in 1888. The present tree is the 13th one to grow up there. It is a Mulberry tree.

181. What was the state of Indiana's first historic memorial?

The James F. D. Lanier State Historic Site in Madison was Indiana's first historic memorial. A premier example of Classic Revival architecture and Indiana's finest antebellum residence, it was built from 1840 to 1844 by noted architect Francis Costigan.

182. What is Hanging Rock, and where can you find it?

Hanging Rock is a rock formation with a cascading waterfall. It's a landmark along Ind. 7 in Madison. The site was formed by a passing glacier and is nearly 100,000 years old.

183. What was the Pigeon Roost Massacre?

On Sept. 3, 1812, the settlement of Pigeon Roost, located in what is now Scott County, was attacked by a war party of Shawnee, Miami and Delaware Indians. In 1904, a memorial was dedicated at the site, where more than 20 settlers and an unknown number of Native Americans were killed.

184. What was Pluto water?

Pluto water was water from the Pluto Spring in French Lick. It was believed to have curative powers and was bottled and sold up to the early 1970s.

185. What is the American War Mothers?

Hoosier Alice Moore French founded the American War Mothers in 1917 for women whose sons and daughters were serving in the armed forces during World War I. The Indiana chapter was the first one organized, with members displaying blue star flags in their windows. The organization was subsequently chartered by Congress.

186. Where in Indiana did Abraham Lincoln leave from on his first flatboat trip to New Orleans?

In 1828, Abraham Lincoln embarked on his first flatboat trip to New Orleans in Spencer County. He was 19-years old.

187. Who is John Mellencamp?

Seymour native John Mellencamp has become an icon in the world of modern music. In 1982, his breakthrough album American Fool went to the top of charts, with such hits as "Jack and Diane" and "Hurts So Good." Mellencamp's sound has been a major influence on artists such as Sheryl Crow, Garth Brooks, Joan Osborne and Kid Rock.

188. Who is Shelley Long?

Shelley Long is an Emmy and Golden Globe award-winning actress who was born in Fort Wayne. She is best known for TV roles on shows such as “Cheers” and “Night Shift” and in movies such as “Outrageous Fortune,” “The Money Pit” and “Troop Beverly Hills.”

189. Who was Karl Malden?

Karl Malden was an actor and one-time president of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Born in Chicago, Malden was raised in Gary. His film debut was with fellow Hoosier Carole Lombard in “They Knew What They Wanted” (1940). In 1947, Malden had his big break on Broadway with “A Streetcar Named Desire,” and he later won an Oscar for best supporting actor for the film version.

190. Who was Dick York?

Dick York was an actor best remembered as the first Darrin Stephens on the TV sitcom “Bewitched.” He was born in Fort Wayne but grew up in Chicago.

191. Who was Dale Messick?

Dale (Dalia) Messick holds the distinction of being America's first woman syndicated comic strip writer/artist. The South Bend native has been called "the most important woman cartoonist of the 20th century." Messick based the character, Brenda Starr, on her favorite actress, Rita Hayworth.

192. Who is Kenneth “Babyface” Edmonds?

Kenneth "Babyface" Edmonds is a songwriter who has written hits for a wide range of artists, including Celine Dion, Mary J. Blige, Whitney Houston, Mariah Carey and Boyz II Men. In 1996, the Indianapolis native wrote "Power of the Dream," which was the anthem for the Summer Olympic Games in Atlanta. Today, a 17-mile stretch of I-65 in Indianapolis is named the Kenneth "Babyface" Edmonds Memorial Highway.

193. Who is Axl Rose?

Born William Bruce Rose in Lafayette, Axl Rose is a founding member of the band Guns and Roses. While the band has been popular with heavy metal fans, its music has continued to have a blues influence. Guns and Roses released several successful albums, but it was the tender rock ballad, "Sweet Child O'Mine," that established its stardom.

194. Who is David Lee Roth?

David Lee Roth was a founding member of Van Halen, a band that created a whole new sound and issued a string of classic mega-selling albums. In 1985, the Bloomington native left Van Halen to embark on a solo career. He had several hits, had a sold-out tour and is known for some highly original music videos such as "Jump," "California Girls," and "Hot for Teacher."

195. Who was Florence Henderson?

Actress Florence Henderson was born in Dale, Indiana, while the country was still in the midst of the Great Depression. She started singing at a young age, and in 1954, Henderson got her first leading role on Broadway in “Fanny.” She was best-known for her role as Carol Brady on “The Brady Bunch” and often returned to Indianapolis for the Indianapolis 500 festivities.

196. Who was Claude Akins?

Actor Claude Akins built a solid career as either a gold old boy or a rugged, mean villain. Born in Georgia, but raised in Bedford, Indiana, Akins said, "For some reason, Hollywood's mainstream has eluded me." Nevertheless, he managed to keep busy in the industry, making more than 85 films and appearing in almost 100 TV shows.

197. Who was Irene Dunne?

Actress Irene Dunne moved to Madison, Indiana, after her father died of a kidney ailment when she was 11. One of her biggest breaks was when she was hired to replace the leading lady in the touring company of “Showboat.” A Hollywood studio took notice and offered her a contract. She went on to star in films such as “Cimarron” (1931), “Love Affair” (1939) and “I Remember Mama” (1948).

198. Who was James Frederick Hanley?

Composer/lyricist James Hanley is best known in the Hoosier state for composing a song that rivals the official state song. He wrote "Back Home Again in Indiana" in 1917. More often than not, Hanley's "Back Home Again in Indiana" is sung at functions such as the start of the Indianapolis 500, while the state song is not.

199. Who was Steve McQueen?

Steve McQueen became an international superstar and was the most celebrated and highest-paid film actor of the 1960s and 1970s. Born in Beech Grove, just outside Indianapolis, he was king of the box office, headed his own production company, and was ranked 30th in a list of the top 100 movie stars of all time. His resume includes roles in “The Magnificent Seven,” “The Great Escape,” “The Sand Pebbles” and “The Getaway.”

200. Who was Booth Tarkington?

Booth Tarkington was a writer during the golden age of Indiana literature. Born in Indianapolis, his works became so popular with the movie colony that for a while nearly everything he wrote was bought and filmed. His works include “The Gentleman from Indiana,” “The Magnificent Ambersons,” “Alice Adams” and “Monsieur Beaucaire.”

201. Which state park has a large toboggan slide?

In far northeastern Indiana, Pokagon State Park is famous for its toboggan slide, which has thrilled visitors since the 1930s.

202. Who was Marshall Taylor?

During an era, the late 1800s and early 1900s, when bicycle racing was one of the most popular sports, Marshall "Major" Taylor set records. In 1901, he won 42 out of the 57 races he entered. Taylor, whose father fought in the Civil War, apparently got his nickname at 13 while performing bicycle tricks.

203. Who was Flossie Bailey?

Marion, in Grant County, saw tragedy in 1930 when a mob killed two African-American teens without a trial. After that, Marion's Flossie Bailey emerged as a civil rights leader. She confronted hospitals that refused to treat black patients and movie theaters that denied admission to African Americans.

204. How many, and which, Hoosiers have been elected vice president?

Five vice presidents have been elected from Indiana, explaining why the state has been called the "Mother of Vice Presidents." They were Schulyer Colfax of South Bend who served from 1868 to 1872, Thomas Hendricks of Shelby County who served for only eight months in 1885 before he died, Charles Fairbanks of Indianapolis who served from 1905 to 1909, Thomas Marshall of Columbia City who served from 1913 to 1921 and Dan Quayle of Huntington who served from 1988 to 1992. Vice President Mike Pence of Columbus, who was governor at the time, was elected in 2016.

205. How many Hoosiers died in the Civil War?

By the end of the Civil War, more than 25,000 Hoosiers had been killed in battle or by disease that quickly spread in the soldiers' camps. The war also dramatically affected the lives of women, children and nonmilitary men who stayed home to keep life going on farms and in towns.

206. How did French Lick in Orange County get its name?

The name of French Lick is probably the result of French explorers who were in the southwestern Indiana region early on. According to historians, the "Lick" name may have come from salt deposits discovered, even though the area later became more famous for its mineral water and spas.

207. What is Indiana's largest ethnic group?

For much of Indiana's 200 years, Germans have been the state's No. 1 ethnic heritage group. Some major cities, such as Evansville and Fort Wayne, have had an especially deep and widespread German heritage. Irish immigrants ranked second for much of Indiana's history. Third and fourth were, in order, English and Scottish immigrants.

208. Where is Johnny Appleseed buried?

Johnny Appleseed was a real person on the Indiana frontier, not just a cartoon character. Appleseed, who was born John Chapman in Massachusetts, died near Fort Wayne in 1845. He had become a folk hero to thousands of people. He wandered the frontier distributing not just apple seeds, but seedlings, to early settlers. He was also a traveling preacher who deeply respected Native Americans.

209. What is a lasting legacy of the state's centennial in 1916?

A lasting legacy of the state's centennial is the creation of the parks system. After the Centennial celebration, the first two state parks created were McCormick's Creek in Owen County and Turkey Run in western Indiana. Fun fact: Turkey Run got its name from wild turkeys that avoided chilly weather by gathering in the canyon bottoms or "runs," which tended to be warmer.

210. In honor of the summer Olympics, who did The Sporting News once call the "most powerful woman in sports?"

Until the 1970s, almost no organized sports for girls were offered at many schools. Even so, Anita DeFrantz from Indianapolis won a bronze medal in rowing at the 1976 Olympic Games. She eventually became, according to The Sporting News, the "most powerful woman in sports." That's because she was the first woman and the first African American on the International Olympic Committee, the organization that oversees the Olympics and decides what city will host the games.

211. What was Indiana's first permanent settlement?

Vincennes is Indiana's oldest city and was the capital of the Indiana Territory. By 1732, French officer Francois-Marie Bissot, Sieur de Vincennes, had arrived and built an outpost trading center there.

212. What's the newest county created in Indiana?

Organized in 1859, Newton County is the youngest county in Indiana. It is also the second county to be named Newton in this area of the state. The first appeared in 1834, but because of a small population, it was absorbed into Jasper County by 1839.

213. When was Whiting Refinery built, and what did it first produce?

The area around Whiting was first settled around 1848, but when the Standard Oil Co. moved to town in 1889, the area was shaped and helped to prosper.

214. What Indiana city is known for its architecture?

Columbus in Bartholomew County is known for its architecture, largely due to the influence of J. Irwin Miller. Miller understood that making Columbus an attractive place to live would enable Cummins to attract and retain a better workforce. He founded the Cummins Engine Foundation, which worked with public officials and grants to hire world-famous architects on public projects. Architects such as Eliel and Eero Saarinen, I.M. Pei and Harry Weese designed churches, libraries and other public buildings for the city, making it one of the major showplaces of modern architecture in the world.

215. How did Eli Lilly and Co. serve the war effort during World War II?

During World War II, Eli Lilly and Co. supplied more than 200 products to the U.S. government. At the request of the American Red Cross, Lilly provided blood plasma for American troops. Before the war ended, the company had provided 2,168,000 pints of blood plasma, 20 percent of all blood gathered by the Red Cross in the United States.

216. What major university was founded in Indiana in 1842?

Father Edward Sorin founded the University of Notre Dame du Lac in 1842. Today, it is well respected worldwide. It is one of several institutions making St. Joseph County a regional center for higher education.

217. What Indiana city is known for manufacturing medical devices?

Bill and Gayle Cook began making medical devices in their Bloomington apartment in 1963. Their company, then called Cook Incorporated, became a world leader in the production of heart catheters and other medical innovations.

218. Where and when was the last lynching in Indiana?

On a hot August night in 1930, a white mob lynched two black teenagers in Marion, on the Grant County courthouse square. Not a single member of the lynch mob was ever punished for one of the greatest injustices in Indiana history.

219. Who was Thomas Taggart?

An Irish immigrant who had settled in Indianapolis, Thomas Taggart achieved great business and political success, including with his French Lick Springs Hotel in the southern Indiana resort town. Taggart achieved such a large reputation as an Indiana Democratic boss that he was called on by his party to serve as national party chairman.

220. Who was James Bethel Gresham?

Although few Hoosiers know his name, James Bethel Gresham was of Evansville earned a place in the history books for his role in World War I. Corporal Gresham of the First Division's Sixteenth Infantry was reportedly the first to die in service of the American Expeditionary Forces. A factory worker at his time of enlistment in the U.S. Army, Gresham symbolized thousands of Hoosiers who were willing to give all for a cause not fully understood at the time.

221. What former governor became president of Purdue University?

Former Indiana governor Mitch Daniels Jr. is the 12th president of Purdue University. Recently named a 2016 Indiana Living Legend by the Indiana Historical Society, Daniels has also served as president of Eli Lilly's North American Pharmaceutical Operations, as senior advisor to President Reagan and as director of the Office of Management and Budget under President George W. Bush.

222. What company is well known for its manufacture of hospital beds?

Hillenbrand Industries Inc., which is located in Batesville, a city in both Franklin and Ripley counties, is well known for its manufacturing of hospital beds and funeral caskets.

223. How many Hoosiers died in World War I?

Indiana sent more than 130,000 soldiers to the Great War, and more than 3,000 died from battle wounds or disease. In 1920, the Indiana General Assembly voted to construct the Indiana World War Memorial and Plaza to remember Hoosiers' involvement in the Great War, a mission eventually expanded to include subsequent wars as well.

224. Are there still Indians in Indiana?

Some descendents live in Indiana; however, the Indian tribes from Indiana were forced to move west of the Mississippi River after Congress passed the Indian Removal Act in 1830.

225. Who is the Borman Expressway named for?

The Borman Expressway is named after Frank Borman. He was an Air Force veteran born in Gary, Indiana. Borman joined NASA as an astronaut and commanded several missions, including Apollo 8, the first manned mission to circle the moon.

226. Is the Hoosier bat a mammal or a baseball bat?

If you guessed baseball bat, you'd be right! The company is based in Valparaiso, Indiana.

227. What and where was the Ideal Section?

The Ideal Section was 1.5 miles of the Lincoln Highway going through Lake County, Indiana. Completed in 1923, it was designed as a model for road construction. Features included steel-reinforced concrete, underground drainage and pedestrian pathways.

228. Who managed the Wizard of Oz lodge and where was it located?

Harry Neal Baum, who was the third son of The Wonderful Wizard of Oz author Frank L. Baum, opened and managed the Wizard of Oz lodge and resort in Bass Lake, Indiana.

229. Who was Broncho John?

John H. Sullivan was known as "Broncho John." He lived in Valparaiso, Indiana, and is a legendary figure in the area. He joined Dr. Carver's Traveling Wild West Show and befriended Buffalo Bill Cody. He would return to Valparaiso with stories of his travels in the Wild West.

230. Where did former Gov. Mitch Daniels like to spend the night while crisscrossing Indiana?

While crisscrossing Indiana as governor, Mitch Daniels liked to stay overnight with local Hoosier families, preferably those who lived on a farm. During his tenure as governor, Daniels stayed with more than 100 families.

231. What was the Wabash Cannonball?

The Wabash Cannonball was a charter train that Robert Kennedy used to tour the state of Indiana when he campaigned for president in 1968.

232. Where did Al Capone get his hooch that he smuggled across the state line during Prohibition?

Legend has it that Al Capone got his hooch in French Lick before smuggling it across the state line. This has not been proven.

233. How old is Lake Michigan, and how was it formed?

Lake Michigan was formed around 1.2 billion years ago by the glaciers melting after the Ice Age.

234. What was Mark Spitz known for?

At one time, Mark Spitz held the record for the number of gold medals won during an Olympic games. The Indiana University graduate won seven in Munich in 1972. During the span of his swimming career, he amassed nine gold medals, one silver and one bronze.

235. Who studied ecology, and helped preserve a U.S. national lakeshore in Northwest Indiana?

Henry Chandler Cowles helped preserve a U.S. national lakeshore in Northwest Indiana. Cowles studied ecology at the Indiana Dunes, which led to his efforts to preserve the Dunes.

236. What was Harold Urey known for?

Harold Urey's pioneering work on isotopes won him the Nobel Prize in chemistry in 1934. He was born in Walkerton, Indiana, on April 29, 1893.

237. Where was the first push-button car radio made?

The Delco Radio Division made the first push-button car radio in Kokomo, Indiana, in 1938.

238. Who was Norman Bridwell?

Norman Bridwell was the author and illustrator of the popular Clifford the Big Red Dog children's book series. He was born in Kokomo, Indiana, on Feb. 15, 1928 and studied at the John Herron Art Institute of Indianapolis (now known as Herron School of Art and Design at IUPUI).

239. What other states were originally parts of the Indiana Territory?

The Indiana Territory originally consisted of present-day Indiana, Michigan, Illinois and Wisconsin.

240. What’s unusual about the fish found in the caves at Spring Mill State Park?

There are blind cavefish living in the caves at Spring Mill State Park. They have been given the name Amblyopsis Hoosieri meaning "Hoosier Cavefish."

241. What’s the oldest zoo in Indiana still operating today?

The oldest Indiana zoo still operating today is Potawatomi Zoo in South Bend. It was founded in 1902 as Leeper Park, before moving to its current location in 1912.

242. What is the Kinsey Institute known for?

The Kinsey Institute at Indiana University is named after Professor Alfred Kinsey and is known for its research regarding human sexuality.

243. When did Hoosier Boys State and Hoosier Girls State begin?

Hoosier Boys State began in 1937, when it was held at Butler University's Hinkle Fieldhouse. Girls State began four years later in 1941.

244. What happened to the Hook’s Drug Stores that used to be so popular?

Kroger bought out Hook's Drug Stores in 1985. The Hook's Historical Drug Store and Pharmacy Museum is still a popular fixture at the Indiana State Fairgrounds.

245. What is Lowell Thomas’ connection to Indiana?

The famous broadcaster attended Northern Indiana University (now known as Valparaiso University) where he earned his bachelor's degree in two years.

246. Where was Indiana’s first railroad built?

Indiana's first railroad was an experimental two-mile road that was completed on July 4, 1834, in Shelbyville, Indiana.

247. Why did Indiana formerly prohibit the sale of alcohol on Election Day?

All states, at one time, prohibited the sale of alcohol on Election Day so candidates could not "buy" votes with liquor. Before Prohibition, many candidates across the U.S. would host parties with plenty of booze to get people to the polling locations.

248. Where was the first automatic telephone in Indiana installed?

The first automatic telephone in Indiana was installed in LaPorte in 1892. It allowed the caller to dial someone directly.

249. Who was Samuel G. Woodfill?

Samuel G. Woodfill was a World War I war hero. Woodfill fought in France and was awarded the Medal of Honor, the French Croix de Guerre and Italy's Meriot di Guerra. He was originally from Belleview, Indiana (Jefferson County).

250. Who was Dr. William M. Scholl?

Dr. William M. Scholl founded Dr. Scholl's foot care products. He was born in LaPorte, Indiana.

251. Who was Janet Flanner?

Janet Flanner was a journalist, who served as a longtime Paris correspondent for The New Yorker. For many years, Janet wrote "Letters from Paris" under the pseudonym "Genet." Born in 1892, she was raised in Indianapolis.

252. Who was Erwin G. Baker?

Erwin G. Baker was a motorcycle and racecar driver nicknamed "Cannon Ball." He was born in Dearborn County, Indiana in 1882.

253. Who was Fred A. Jewell?

Fred A Jewell was a composer born in Worthington (Greene County) in 1875. He wrote more than 100 marches and became a bandmaster for several circuses, including Ringling Brothers and Barnum and Bailey. Many of his marches and screamers are still performed today, including "E Pluribus Unum," "The Screamer," and "Floto's Triumph."

254. Who was Alvah Curtis Roebuck?

Alvah Curtis Roebuck founded Sears and Roebuck Co., along with his business partner Richard Warren Sears. He was born in Lafayette (Tippecanoe County).

255. Why is there a tiny police booth in Goshen?

Goshen's tiny police booth was built in the 1930's so that police officers could keep watch on nearby banks. City officials had good reason to fear robbers, such as members of the John Dillinger gang, might strike in Goshen. Dillinger was already dead by the time the booth was completed in 1939, but that didn't stop local officers from putting it to use.

256. Where and when was Indiana’s first naval armory built?

Indiana's first naval armory was built in 1937, along the White River in Indianapolis. The imposing building served as a national training center for Navy radio operators during World War II. Now vacant, there is talk of turning the building into a second campus for Herron High School.

257. What is Indiana’s oldest church still in use?

The Basilica of St. Francis Xavier located in Vincennes (Knox County) is Indiana's oldest church still in use. Also known simply as The Old Cathedral, Jesuit missionaries established St. Francis Xavier parish around 1734.

258. What’s the oldest Indiana high school?

Indiana's oldest high school is New Albany High School in southern Indiana (Floyd County). It was founded in 1853 and has continued as a school, though it has moved to several locations. The school also closed at different periods throughout its history, such as when it was used as a hospital for soldiers during the Civil War.

259. When was the monastery in Ferdinand founded?

Monastery Immaculate Conception, in Ferdinand (Dubois County), was founded in 1867. Known as the "Castle on the Hill," the monastery is home to one of the nation's largest communities of Benedictine women.

260. How many Frank Lloyd Wright buildings are there in Indiana?

Today, there are seven Frank Lloyd Wright buildings in Indiana. There were eight, but the Wilbur Wynant House (1915) was destroyed by a fire in 2006. The remaining buildings are located in South Bend, Gary, Ogden Dunes, Marion, Fort Wayne and West Lafayette.

261. How were the World’s Fair homes brought to Beverly Shores from Chicago?

Four World's Fair homes were brought to Beverly Shores from Chicago by barge. A fifth was dismantled at the fair and reassembled in Beverly Shores.

262. What’s the oldest book at the Indiana State Library?

The Indiana State Library's earliest cataloged book is Le vita et beneficiis saluatoris Jesu Christi de uotissime mediationes cum gratiaruactione, or The Imitation of Christ, by Thomas à Kempis. But the earliest items in the collection are cuneiform tablets, dating from around 2350-2000 BC. (Guest Contributor is Bethany Fiechter of the Indiana State Library.)

263. Who was Indiana’s first stand-alone state librarian?

Indiana's first stand-alone state librarian was John Cook from 1841-1844. The Legislature created the Indiana State Library in 1825; however, for the first 16 years, it was located in one corner of the secretary of state's office. It wasn’t until 1841 that a state librarian fulfilled the role.

264. What happened to the farms, towns and cemeteries that would be flooded when the Salamonie and Mississinewa reservoirs were created?

When the Salamonie and Mississinewa reservoirs were created in the 1960s, the Army Corps of Engineers bought the towns of Monument City, Dora, Somerset and part of Mount Etna. Residents moved, homes were demolished and cemeteries were relocated. Whenever the reservoirs are down, visitors can still see a few stone foundations, gravel roadbeds and other remnants of the communities.

265. Who was Philo T. Farnsworth?

Philo T. Farnsworth was an inventor and scientist. He invented the first all-electric television. He also founded the Farnsworth Television and Radio Corp. in Fort Wayne, Indiana.

266. What was mined from Indiana caves?

Coal was mined from many caves throughout the state of Indiana.

267. How did Gnaw Bone get its name?

There is some dispute over how the unincorporated community of Gnaw Bone got its name. One theory is the town used to be a French settlement named Narbonne. To English ears, it sounded like "gnaw bone." Hence, the name. Another theory is that once a man was trying to find someone and was told "I seen him over at the Hawkins' place gnawin' on a bone," and the name stuck. However Gnaw Bone got its name, it is listed as one of the most unusual town names in the country.

268. Where did Clark Gable and Hoosier Carole Lombard spend their honeymoon?

We may never know exactly where Clark Gable and Hoosier Carole Lombard spent their honeymoon, but there are two popular stories. One story is that the famous couple spent their honeymoon at Big Barbee Lake (Kosciusko County). Another supposed honeymoon location is the Haunted Oatman Hotel in Oatman, Arizona. There are claims that the ghosts of Gable and Lombard haunt the building.

269. What is Indiana’s Lost River?

Legend has it there is an underground river near West Baden and French Lick Springs. It is aptly named "Lost River."

270. What was the first newspaper published in what is now the state of Indiana?

When Elihu Stout arrived in Vincennes, he set out to publish the first newspaper in the Indiana Territory. The Indiana Gazette made its debut in 1804. The first issue is not catalogued and may not exist, but the Hoosier State Chronicles does possess a copy of the second issue, published on Aug. 7, 1804.

271. What do railroad buffs know as the Big Four?

When railroad buffs speak of the Big Four, they're referring to the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago and St. Louis railroad lines in Indiana.

272. Why is Indiana’s state boundary 10 miles north of the territorial boundary?

When Indiana became a state in 1816, Congress moved the boundary miles 10 miles north of the Indiana Territory boundary line to give the state access to part of Lake Michigan.

273. What invasive species of fish are causing concern in the Wabash River?

Asian carp are an invasive species of fish that are causing concern in the Wabash River.

274. What museum is at Fort Harrison State Park?

The Museum of 20th Century Warfare is located at Fort Harrison State Park. According to its Facebook page, the museum is dedicated to honoring veterans while teaching about the soldiers and the technology of 20th century warfare.

275. What two popular 21st century TV sitcoms were set in Indiana?

The NBC sitcom “Parks and Recreation” is set in Pawnee, a fictional town in Indiana. ABC's sitcom “The Middle” is based on Jasper, Indiana, but is set in the fictional town of Orson.

276. What kind of continental divide runs through Indiana?

The north-south continental divide runs through South Bend, in St. Joseph County. This divide separates the Great Lakes drainage system from the Mississippi River drainage system.

277. What Hoosier scientist uses bugs to study forensics?

Neal Haskell, who now works in the Biology Department at St. Joseph's College in Rensselaer, uses bugs to study forensics. According to his bio, Haskell is one of the creators of this area of criminal investigation and coauthored the first textbook on forensic entomology for law enforcement.

278. Which Hoosier city is called “the birthplace of recorded jazz?"

Richmond, in Wayne County, is called "the birthplace of recorded jazz." Greats such as Louis Armstrong, Jelly Roll Morton and Hoagy Carmichael recorded in Gannett Studios, owned by the Starr Piano Co.

279. When was White River State Park created?

White River State Park was created in 1979. According to the Encyclopedia of Indianapolis, the park was different from other Indianapolis city projects because it was to be an urban state park.

280. Where is the Indiana Transportation Museum located?

The Indiana Transportation Museum is located in Noblesville, in Hamilton County. The museum's website describes it as a "nonprofit heritage railroad that operates a number of excursions along 34 miles of former Nickel Plate Road track."

281. Who was Thomas Hart Benton?

Thomas Hart Benton painted the Indiana murals for the 1933 World's Fair in Chicago. The 22-panel mural series depicts the social and industrial age of Indiana from Native American mound builders to the industrialized age, and the work is still on display on the IU Bloomington campus where it was installed in 1941.

282. Who was Samuel Plato?

Samuel Plato was an African-American architect who built several homes in Marion (Grant County), including the famous Hostess House in 1912. According to the Historical Marker, placed by the Indiana Historical Bureau, Plato was one of the few black architects to win federal contracts for post offices and housing, and his work earned praise from First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt.

283. What’s hidden in the trees at Bendix Woods County Park in New Carlisle?

The pine trees at Bendix Woods County Park were planted to spell "Studebaker" in the 1930s. According to the park's website, they are listed in the Guinness Book of Records and on the National Historic Register.

284. Who was Lawrence D. Bell?

Lawrence D. Bell was an aviation pioneer and founder of Bell Aircraft Corp. and Bell Helicopter. His name and legacy lives on in his hometown of Mentone (Kosciusko County) where there is the Lawrence D. Bell Aircraft Museum and the Bell Memorial Public Library.

285. Who was James F.D. Lanier?

James F.D. Lanier was a lawyer, banker and financier who made his greatest contribution to Indiana during the Civil War. He lent funds to the state twice during the war, helping ensure that Indiana remained a mainstay of the Union cause.

286. Who was William Raspberry?

William Raspberry was one of the nation's first widely syndicated African-American newspaper columnists. Raspberry was a Washington Post columnist and a winner of the 1994 Pulitzer Prize for distinguished commentary. He was a graduate of Indiana Central College, now the University of Indianapolis.

287. Who was William Forsythe?

William Forsythe was an artist and member of the Hoosier Group, along with T.C. Steele, Ottis Adams, Otto Stark and Richard Gruelle. He also taught many of the following generation's best-known Indiana artists at the Herron Art Institute.

288. Who was Helen M. Gougar?

Helen M. Gougar was a lawyer, women's suffrage orator and writer, newspaper owner and one of the first women to argue before the Indiana Supreme Court (Gougar v. Timberlake, 1897). In its opinion, the Court rejected Gougar's argument for women's voting rights, specifically designating voting as a political instead of a natural right. Indiana women did not achieve the vote until the 19th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution took effect in 1920.

289. Which Indiana city was known as the “lime city”?

Huntington was known as the "lime city" for its many limestone quarries and kilns. Today, visitors can walk the Lime City Trail, which is one mile in length and anchored on one end by the Forks of the Wabash Historic Park.

290. Who was Walter Q. Gresham?

Walter Quintin Gresham served in the Union Army as colonel of the 53rd Indiana Infantry during the Civil War. The Harrison County native served as postmaster general and secretary of the treasury during President Chester Arthur's administration. He later served as secretary of state in President Grover Cleveland's administration, a post he held until his death.

291. Who is Fuzzy Zoeller?

Fuzzy Zoeller is a retired professional golfer whose 1979 Masters victory still remains the only victory posted by a Masters rookie. To date, he has designed 19 golf courses. He also has his own line of BBQ and steak sauces, as well vodka.

292. Who is Tony Stewart?

Tony Stewart is a race-car driver and Columbus (Bartholomew County) native. He is a three-time Sprint Cup Series champion who earned his first crown in 2002 by beating veteran racer Mark Martin by 38 points.

293. What was Operation Skywatch?

According to a historical marker placed in Cairo (Tippecanoe County), the U.S. Air Force commissioned an observation tower in 1952 for Operation Skywatch, part of the Civilian Ground Observation Corps during the Korean War. Approximately 90 people alternated shifts to maintain 24-hour watch for enemy planes because the U.S. did not have a national radar system.

294. Who was Gil Hodges?

Gil Hodges was a major league baseball player from Princeton (Gibson County). He was an All-Star and Golden Glove first baseman who went on to coach the New York Mets to the 1969 World Series title. He was inducted into the New York Mets Hall of Fame in 1982.

295. Who is Don Mattingly?

Don Mattingly is the current manager of the Miami Marlins. A former professional baseball player, the Evansville native spent his entire playing career with the New York Yankees. The team retired his uniform number after Mattingly's retirement.

296. What is Indiana’s oldest fire department?

According to the city of Madison's website, the city's fire department is the "oldest volunteer fire department in Indiana and is among the most historic fire departments in the United States. Organized fire protection in the city dates back to 1821."

297. Where was the Coca-Cola bottle designed?

According to the company's website, the now famous Coca-Cola contour bottle was patented in 1915 by the Root Glass Co. of Terre Haute (Vigo County). It's also referred to as a "hobble-skirt" design, after a resemblance to a dress-style from the early 1900s.

298. What were corduroy roads?

A corduroy road is a road made of logs that covered a particularly muddy area. One such example was Sycamore Row in Carroll County. Legend goes that the sycamores you see today sprouted from logs used to "corduroy" a swampy section of historic Michigan Road, the first state highway in Indiana.

299. Who was Roy Frowick (Halston)?

Roy Halston Frowick, better known as Halston, was an iconic fashion designer who first made waves when Jackie Kennedy wore his pillbox hat designs. Later, his dresses became a staple in American discos. Halston was born in Des Moines, Iowa, but moved with his family to Evansville and attended Indiana University.

300. Who was Elmo Lincoln?

Elmo Lincoln is one of three men from the Hoosier State to have played Tarzan. Lincoln, who was from Rochester, starred in the first Tarzan film, “Tarzan of the Apes,” in 1918. James Pierce of Franklin starred in the last silent Tarzan film, “Tarzan and the Golden Lion,” in 1927; and Denny Miller of Bloomington starred in “Tarzan, the Ape Man” in 1959.

301. What is the movie “Breaking Away” about?

The 1979 moving “Breaking Away” featured "The Little 500" bike race at Indiana University. Starring Dennis Christopher, Dennis Quaid and Daniel Stern, it was shot in Bloomington, Indiana.

302. What famous singer grew up in Wabash?

Although she wasn't born in Wabash, Indiana, country singer Crystal Gayle grew up there. Born Brenda Gail Webb, she is one of the younger sisters of singer Loretta Lynn. At the height of her popularity in the ‘70s and ‘80s, Gayle was also known for her nearly floor-length hair.

303. What was Indiana's first railway?

The Madison and Indianapolis was the state's first railway, completed from the Ohio River to the capital city in 1847.

304. What’s the historical significance of Froebel School in Gary?

Opened in 1912, Froebel School in Gary was touted as the first in the city to accept blacks into the system, though they were segregated in all areas. After World War II, the school was the scene of boycotts, as white students walked out in protest and national celebrities such as Frank Sinatra and Joe Louis spoke at rallies in an attempt to end the divide. The strikes ended in November 1945, and the passage of anti-segregation bills by the Gary city council and the passage of a state anti-discrimination bill in 1949 opened all schools to African Americans.

305. Did Indiana's 1851 Constitution really prevent blacks from migrating to Indiana?

Indiana's 1851 constitution contained racism, in the form of Article XIII, which prohibited African Americans from settling in the state. The 1851 constitution has been amended numerous times, but it still stands as Indiana's governing document.

306. Who was Squire Boone?

Squire Boone was a brother of the famous Daniel Boone. He settled in Harrison County in southern Indiana, where he and his brother had discovered a set of caverns that are now known as the Squire Boone Caverns. The caverns are also the site of Boone's final resting place.

307. Who was Elwood Mead?

Dr. Elwood Mead was a native of Patriot (Switzerland County) who headed the Interior Department's Bureau of Reclamation from 1924 until his death. Mead served as chief engineer in the construction of the Hoover Dam, and the huge lake formed by the dam was named Lake Mead in his honor.

308. Who was Private Barton Mitchell?

A Civil War soldier who mustered in from Indianapolis, Private Barton W. Mitchell is believed to have found the famous "Lee's Lost Order" wrapped around a package of cigars while he was resting following a battle near Frederick, Maryland. Mitchell is buried in the Baptist cemetery in Hartsville (Bartholomew County).

309. When was the Indiana State Police formed?

The Indiana legislature created the "Indiana Motor Vehicle Police" in 1921. Its 16 members had limited authority to enforce the rules of the road. The Indiana State Police, as we know it, was formed in 1933, with the Executive Reorganization Act under Gov. Paul McNutt.

310. What is the Wayne Trace and where is it located?

The Wayne Trace is the path General Anthony Wayne took in route from Fort Wayne to Fort Greenville in 1794, which ended the western campaign against the Indian Confederacy. Today, a marker stands in Decatur in Adams County.

311. What were settlement houses, and what did they do?

Settlement houses were first established by the British to provide social services and education to poor urban workers. The idea gained popularity in America in the late 1880s. One such house was the Stewart House, organized during the depression of 1921 to provide services for Gary's steel mill community.

312. Who was Edwin Way Teale?

Edwin Way Teale was a naturalist, author and photographer. He is perhaps best known for his series “The American Seasons” and won the 1966 Pulitzer Prize for his book “Wandering Through Winter.” While born in Illinois, he spent his childhood summers at his grandparents' farm in Indiana's dune country.

313. Who was James Mooney?

James Mooney was an American ethnographer, or an anthropologist dealing with specific human cultures, who studied American Indians. The Richmond (Wayne County) native lived for several years among the Cherokee and worked for the U.S. Bureau of American Ethnology from 1885 until his death in 1921.

314. Who was Tom Harmon?

Tom Harmon was a 1940 Heisman Trophy winner who is regarded as one of the greatest athletes in University of Michigan football history. Following college, the Rensselaer native served in World War II and played professionally, before becoming a sportscaster. He was the father of actor Mark Harmon.

315. Who is the Michigan City native who pitched the first perfect World Series game?

Don Larsen, 87, pitched the only no-hitter or perfect game in World Series history during the 1956 series. The Michigan City native won that year's World Series Most Valuable Player Award as a New York Yankee.

316. What school was called the “Poor Man’s Harvard”?

From the early to mid 1900s, Valparaiso University was known as "Poor Man's Harvard" for its reputation as an economical institution of higher learning. Many alumni of this period achieved distinction in their fields as governors, legislators, scientists, business leaders and other professionals.

317. What was the first private engineering college west of the Alleghenies?

Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology was the first private engineering college west of the Alleghenies. It was founded in 1874 as the Rose Polytechnic Institute.

318. Which Hoosier high school had the first daily high school paper in the United States?

Established in 1898, The Shortridge Daily Echo, in Indianapolis, was the first daily high school paper in the United States. Its long list of editors includes names such as author Kurt Vonnegut and “I Love Lucy” creator Madelyn Pugh.

319. How many Hoosiers have been on the U.S. Supreme Court?

Indiana's Sherman Minton is often referred to as the state's only Supreme Court justice, but Willis Van Devanter, who served on the court from 1911 to 1937, was born and raised in Marion (Grant County). Minton, who was appointed by President Harry Truman, felt his most important legacy on the court was his role in civil rights cases such as Brown v. Board of Education in 1954.

320. Why were wooden buildings banned in the Adams County town of Geneva?

In 1895, fire destroyed much of Geneva, a town that saw the 1890s oil boom translate into population and business growth. In turn, the Geneva Board of Trustees banned wooden buildings and mandated that they be built of stone, iron or brick.

321. How does Brown County celebrate Bluegrass?

The Brown County Jamboree began informally in Bean Blossom, Indiana, as a free outdoor show featuring local musicians. By 1941, it drew large crowds, including guests from other states. Today, the annual festival continues every June at the Bill Monroe Memorial Music Park.

322. Who was Hannah Tolivar?

Hannah Tolivar was a free black woman living in Jeffersonville (Clark County) who was arrested in 1864 for helping a fugitive slave from Kentucky as part of the Underground Railroad. She was convicted and sentenced to seven years in the Kentucky Penitentiary but returned to Jeffersonville after she was pardoned in 1865.

323. What was the Treaty of Greenville?

The Treaty of Greenville marked a turning point in favor of the Americans against the Miami Indians. It was signed in 1794 after General Anthony Wayne defeated the Miami in a bloody and decisive battle called the Battle of Fallen Timbers. The treaty stipulated that the Indians sign over to the U.S. a vast territory that included two-thirds of Ohio, a narrow strip of southeastern Indiana and several villages.

324. Who was William Conner?

William Conner started out as a licensed trader who later served the federal government by negotiating land treaties with Indians. He not only experienced the territory's transition from wilderness to a rapidly developing state, he was an agent of it. Today, his former home is known as the living history center Conner Prairie.

325. What does Indiana's 1851 Constitution say about the issues of debt and education?

The 1851 Constitution addressed two issues on the public radar in the 1840s, the state's massive debt and the need for better public education. The delegates wrote a new provision prohibiting the state from incurring debt. On education, the new constitution established a permanent fund to support schools and provided for a state superintendent.

326. What is the significance of the 28th United States Colored Troops (USCT)?

In November 1863, the U.S. War Department authorized Indiana Governor Oliver Morton to organize Indiana's first black regiment. The 28th Regiment United States Colored Troops was officially formed in Indiana on Dec. 24, 1863.

327. Where were Italian POWs kept in Indiana during World War II?

During World War II, several thousand Italian POWs were kept at Camp Atterbury, which spans parts of Bartholomew, Johnson and Brown Counties. The prisoners were housed in a large compound located on the extreme western edge of camp. They constructed a small chapel that still stands today.

328. Where can one find the Tulip Trestle?

The Tulip Trestle, also known as the Greene County Viaduct, was built in 1906 near Bloomfield, Indiana. At its completion, it was the third longest bridge of its kind in the world. The Tulip Trestle stretches nearly a mile over the fields below and is still in use today.

329. What is the significance of turnvereins in Indiana history?

A turnverein is a German gymnastics and cultural club. Leading up to Germany's Revolution of 1848, the organizations were not just athletic, but political, and many members who revolted against the monarchy left the country. Turnvereins were then established in cities in the United States, such as Fort Wayne and Indianapolis.

330. What Indiana city was known as the "Magic City" in the early 1900s?

The nickname the "Magic City" refers to Gary in the years between 1906 and 1908. At that time, U.S. Steel spent more than $42 million on both the steel works and on town projects. Gary also had a thriving cultural life with an orchestra and theater groups.

331. What was special about the White House china designed by First Lady Caroline Scott Harrison?

First Lady Caroline Scott Harrison is not only credited with caring for the White House china collection, but designing and painting her own in honor of Indiana. The Harrison White House china includes a motif of goldenrod and ears of corn.

332. Who was Dr. John N. Hurty?

Dr. John N Hurty was the head of the Indiana State Board of Health from 1896 to 1922. Hurty campaigned for improving sanitary conditions to prevent the spread of disease and made great advancements in public health reform. Between 1899 and 1915, more than 35 laws were passed to improve the daily lives of Hoosiers, including the Drug Sample Law (1907), which prevented drugs from being distributed freely; the Hydrophobia Law (1911), that required dogs receive the rabies vaccine; and the Cold Storage Law (1911), which regulated the temperature and time span food could be held in cold storage.

333. What was Indiana's stand on eugenics in the early 20th century?

The 1907 Sterilization Law gave Indiana a dubious distinction. The first of its kind in the nation, this eugenics law empowered penal and mental institutions to sterilize inmates deemed "criminals, idiots, imbeciles and rapists." The Indiana Supreme Court overturned the law in 1921, but remnants continued until 1974.

334. What is the legacy of Indiana Avenue?

In its peak in the 1930s, Indiana Avenue in Indianapolis was home to more than 25 jazz clubs. Today, only the street's crown jewel, the Madam Walker Theater, reminds passersby of the street's heyday.

335. What is Indiana's connection to the popular Chuck Taylor shoes?

Chuck Taylor, the man, got his start playing high school basketball in Columbus (Bartholomew County). He later became a household name as a promoter for Converse All Star Shoes, also known as "Chuck Taylors."

336. What Hoosier farm leads the continent in duck production?

Maple Leaf Farms, a family-owned company based in Leesburg (Kosciusko County), leads North America in duck production. Like many modern poultry companies, it works with a number of independent family farms to grow and care for its ducks.

337. How did Indiana make headlines the night of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.'s assassination?

When then-presidential candidate Robert Kennedy heard the news of Dr. King's assassination, he canceled his visit to the downtown Indianapolis campaign headquarters and went directly to Broadway Christian Center where a large crowd was gathering. Kennedy discarded prepared remarks and inspired many with an impromptu speech. Although other American cities, such as Chicago and Baltimore, erupted into riots that night, Indianapolis's streets remained quiet.

338. Who was James Buchanan Eads?

An American civil engineer and inventor, James Buchanan Eads is best known for designing and building the Eads Bridge, used to cross the Mississippi River at St. Louis. Eads was born in Lawrenceburg (Dearborn County) but raised in Missouri. He is named after his mother's cousin, James Buchanan, at that time a Pennsylvania congressman who became president of the United States.

339. Who was George Jean Nathan?

George Jean Nathan was a prominent theater critic born in Fort Wayne in 1882. Nathan published 34 books on theater and co-edited two influential magazines. He graduated from Cornell University, which now administers the George Jean Nathan Award for best work in dramatic criticism.

340. Who was Rachel Peden?

Rachel Peden was a popular newspaper columnist and book author who wrote about her life in a rural area, west of Bloomington, Indiana. She was "discovered" when she sent letters to her sister, the wife of newspaper publisher Eugene C. Pulliam. Starting in 2009, Quarry Books, an imprint of Indiana University Press, began reprinting Peden's books, making them available to a new generation.

341. Who was Theodore Hesburgh?

Theodore Hesburgh was a Roman Catholic priest who served as president of the University of Notre Dame from 1952 to 1987. He was a founding member of the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights and recipient of the Presidential Medal of Freedom and Congressional Gold Medal.

342. Who was Vivian Carter?

Vivian Carter was a Gary radio celebrity. She also founded Vee-Jay Records, the first successful black-owned record label in America. It released some of the most original music of the mid-twentieth century, from rhythm and blues, doo wop and pop to jazz, electric blues and gospel.

343. Who was Jane Blaffer Owen?

Jane Blaffer Owen was known for dedicating her life to preserving and promoting the spirit of the utopian village of New Harmony. An oil heiress by birth, Owen used her intellectual and financial resources to restore many original structures and to commission new ones. She also built gardens and sanctuaries throughout the town, and one of those gardens is dedicated to the memory of her husband, Kenneth Dale Owen.

344. What is the Koch family known for?

Not to be confused with another famous family of Kochs, theses Kochs are the founders and developers of Holiday World and Splashin' Safari and Lake Rudolph Campground and RV Resort. The popular attractions are due to the vision and hard work of three generations of the family of Louis J. Koch, grandson of German immigrants who came to Evansville, Indiana, in 1843.

345. Who was Emma Lou Thornbrough?

Emma Lou Thornbrough was a national pioneer in black history and a lifelong worker for civil rights in Indiana. In addition to major works in black history, she wrote the comprehensive “Indiana in the Civil War Era, 1850-1880,” volume three of the five-part history of Indiana commissioned by the Indiana Historical Society for the state sesquicentennial.

346. Who was Herb Shriner?

Often billed as "the Hoosier Humorist," Herb Shriner drew national attention to both himself and his adopted home state of Indiana with a multimedia career that peaked in the 1950s. His career spanned television and radio, as well as Broadway.

347. Who was Knute Rockne?

Knute Rockne was an All-America football player and a coach at the University of Notre Dame. He is considered one of the greatest coaches in college football history. Rockne was also a goodwill ambassador for the sport.

348. Who was Fred Zollner?

Fred Zollner was an industrialist, owner of Zollner Corporation and founder of Fort Wayne Pistons pro basketball team (later the Detroit Pistons). He also helped found the National Basketball Association in 1949.

349. Who was Calvin Fletcher?

Calvin Fletcher became an essential figure in the economic development of Indianapolis over a half century. Fletcher was an attorney, banker, farmer, community leader, landowner and state legislator. Fletcher also made a name for himself with his opposition to slavery. He moved from the Whig Party to the Free-Soil movement and then to the new Republican Party and supported the Union cause in the Civil War. His multi-volume diary was published by the Indiana Historical Society between 1972 and 1983.

350. Who was Glenn Albert Black?

Glenn Albert Black was Indiana's first professional archaeologist and was best known for his study of the Angel Mounds. He also established Indiana's first archaeology program—initially through the Indiana Historical Society and then Indiana University.

351. Who was Zerna Sharp?

Zerna Sharp was a teacher, as well as the creator and editor of Dick and Jane, a popular reading series for grade-school children sold from 1927 to 1973. As a Clinton County citizen, Sharp is recognized by the local historical society as "one who has made a significant impact on society."

352. Who was John A. Bushemi?

John Bushemi was a newspaper and war photographer who received a posthumous Bronze Star and Purple Heart. While covering World War II for Yank magazine, he was mortally wounded in the central Pacific. Bushemi was raised in Gary and was inducted into the Indiana Journalism Hall of Fame in 2001.

353. Who was Robert Frank Borkenstein?

Born in Fort Wayne to German immigrant parents, Robert Borkenstein was a forensic scientist, educator, author and inventor of the Breathalyzer.

354. Who was Paul "Spotts" Emrick?

Paul "Spotts" Emrick was a Purdue band director whose innovations for marching bands forever changed college halftime shows. A reluctant retiree in 1954, Emrick returned to his hometown of Rochester where he died in 1965 at the age of 81. Today, his bust is at the entrance to the band rooms outside of the Elliott Hall of Music on the Purdue campus.

355. What home is cited as the first brick home in the state of Indiana?

Grouseland, which served as the home of William Henry Harrison when he was Governor of the Indiana Territory, was the first brick home in Indiana. Built in Vincennes in 1804, it got its name from the abundance of game birds in the area. Today, it is a National Historic Landmark.

356. How many days did it take Indiana's framers to write the 1816 Constitution?

While Indiana's constitutional convention ran 20 days from start to finish, it took the delegates just 18 days to write the 1816 Constitution. The framers gathered in Corydon (Harrison County), where they borrowed from the constitutions of Ohio, Kentucky, Virginia and Pennsylvania in writing Indiana's own governing document.

357. Who were the first inhabitants of our state?

While prehistoric American Indians may have been in Indiana as long ago as 11,000 BC, the Adena are often credited with being the first inhabitants of Indiana. The Adena were a hunting-and-gathering people that lived in east central Indiana beginning around 1000 B.C. They left behind earthen monuments, which are deep ditches surrounded by embankments, at Mounds State Park in Anderson. They were replaced by the Hopewell, who used the mounds and constructed more for burial and ritual purposes.

358. Who is responsible for the state's first highway?

Bison made Indiana's first highway. It started at the Falls of the Ohio near modern-day Clarksville, where the beasts came together to cross the Ohio River at its shallowest point. It ended near Vincennes, where they scattered to graze on the Illinois prairie grass.

359. Who is credited with establishing the country's first commercially successful vineyard?

Wine historians generally credit John James Dufour of Switzerland County with establishing the first commercially successful vineyard (1806), though Peter Legaux and the Pennsylvania Vine Co. had been attempting to do so since the 1790s. Today, the Musée de Venoge in Vevay stands as a testament to southern Indiana's once thriving grape culture.

360. What was the Roberts Settlement?

The Roberts Settlement, which was founded in Hamilton County in 1835, was one of the most prominent communities formed by free African American migrating to Indiana. A country chapel and pioneer cemetery are tangible reminders of this once vibrant settlement, near modern-day Arcadia.

361. Who was the first Hoosier poet to gain national fame?

The honor goes to Sarah T. Bolton, whose poem "Paddle Your Own Canoe" still is cited today. Indiana Historical Society records note that Bolton served as poet laureate of Indiana during the 1840s and 1850s. While held in high regard by her contemporaries, by the turn of the century, Bolton's writing was often eclipsed by that of James Whitcomb Riley.

362. What city hosted Indiana's first woman's rights convention?

Dublin, in Wayne County, hosted Indiana's first woman's rights convention in 1851, three years after a similar convention took place in Seneca Falls, New York. The Dublin delegates adopted a constitution that called for annual meetings with reports to be given on working conditions and pay, legal rights and education of women. It led to the creation of the Indiana Woman's Rights Association.

363. When did the first Indiana State Fair take place?

Indiana claims the sixth oldest fair in the country. The first Indiana State Fair took place in October 1852. Farmers showed off their finest specimens of cows, hogs, horses and chickens. A Mechanics Hall displayed the newest reapers and plows, and corn growers competed for a silver cup for the heartiest ears.

364. What is the significance of the Beatles' concert at the Indiana State Fair?

The Beatles performed two sold-out shows for 30,000 screaming fans at the Indiana State Fair on Sept. 3, 1964, and generated global headlines. Indianapolis was the band's 10th stop in a 24-city tour, the only one at a state fair.

365. What famous Hoosier actor was a runaway child?

Steve McQueen, who starred in films such as “The Magnificent Seven,” “Bulitt” and “The Towering Inferno,” was the poster child for runaway children and dysfunctional living. McQueen was born in Beech Grove, Indiana, in 1930. His mother was an alcoholic who could not raise the infant McQueen after his father left for a flying circus, and she left him with her parents in Missouri. McQueen bounced back and forth among relatives. He stayed on his uncle’s farm only a few months before joining a travelling circus and eventually drifting to Los Angeles. McQueen died in 1980 of cardiac arrest, after developing mesothelioma two years prior. The Beech Grove Public Library has an entire historical collection dedicated to McQueen.

366. When did the Indiana Historical Society begin?

The Indiana Historical Society was started on Dec. 11, 1830, which was the 14th anniversary of Indiana statehood. A collection of Indianapolis movers and shakers decided to start a historical society and sought to obtain many objects relating to Indiana's history. The goal was to hold a “collection of all materials calculated to shed light on the natural, civil, and political history of Indiana, the promotion of useful knowledge and the friendly and profitable intercourse of such citizens of the state as are disposed to promote the aforesaid objects.”

367. What is the exact date of Indiana's birthday?

On Dec. 11, 1816, Indiana became the 19th state. Hoosiers have been observing the date formally since 1925, when the Indiana General Assembly passed a law requiring the governor to "issue a proclamation annually designating the eleventh day of December as Indiana Day."


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